Share Your AXA Research 2023 | AXA Research Fund
Welcome to this new edition of Share Your AXA Research. I am Elodie Chabrol and I'm really happy today to welcome nine AXA fellows in the room and six online following an online media training. They will pitch their research in 3 minutes in front of the expert scientific board. And our guests from UNESCO's IOC and AXA are eight scientists from the latest AXA research. Franco from Project on Health Impact of Climate Change. We will talk.
Three of them will be remote. Then we will take the time for a few questions at the end of the last presentation. Then we will move to the presentation of the seven fellows of the Joint AXA Unesco Fellowship that were selected in 2022 to address the issues of coastal livelihoods, preservation and resilience.
Three of them will be remote. Now let's give a warm welcome to our new fellows and hear from projects that will help us understand the risk posed by climate change to our health and how we can better manage them. Beatrice Cantoni is opening the session. She will talk about the impact of climate on water, but not only on water quality. Beatrice the mic is yours.
Thank you. So on my water bottle It's written BPA free. That means bisphenol A free. And maybe you are seeing more and more often similar labels on different chemicals, on your T-shirts, on the pants, on the plastic bottles, cosmetics and shampoos. In fact, the products that we use every day may contain these chemicals called emerging contaminants.
Emerging because they were just recently discovered in the last decades, and contaminants because both when they are produced and when we use them in our household, they can be released into the environment, they enter the water cycle and they can come back to us from drinking water and food and they may have different potential impacts on human health. But since these are new chemicals, I see a lot of uncertainties are present about their fate in the environment and human health impact. But what we know is that climate change will worsen the quality of our water sources. And so we expect these contaminant concentrations to increase. that's my AXA project aims at assessing the impact of climate change on human health risk due to an increasing exposure to these contaminants from both drinking water and food, thanks to an advanced risk assessment procedure that is able to include all the uncertainties, we still have related to these contaminants. In this way, we will be able to identify the main sources of risk and what are the most vulnerable points of the system.
For example, we will answer questions like all the water sources are worsening at the same speed or current technology as we already have in our drinking water and wastewater treatment plants are and will be good enough to remove these contaminants also in the future, then I will look at different interventions and mitigation strategies to remove these contaminants in the system. For example, new technologies to understand what is the risk reduction that they can achieve. To do so, we will combine different monitoring campaigns to measure these contaminants in the system with the lab testing of different technologies, then modeling, risk assessment and of course communication.
All this will be done in collaboration, in collaboration with technology experts, toxicologists and modelling experts, so that this project can provide a multidisciplinary solution to prepare decision makers, scientific community and society to understand what are the regulations, research activities and actions that we need to cope with this climate related impacts on a human health. Thank you. We will now welcome Emma Lawrance to hear about her research on climate awareness, impact on youth mental health Emma the floor is yours.
Thank you. 75% of young people feel the future is frightening because of climate change. In the Philippines, one of the country's most affected.
Already, this rises to a staggering 92%. What is it like to grow into adulthood? Feeling the future will likely be worse than the past and that you've been effectively screwed over by previous generations. What does that ongoing fear, anger, distress, guilt, betrayal do to a developing mind and to the creation or worsening of mental health challenges? How many young people is this affecting and how does this interact with all the other aspects of their lives in this two year project, I will work with young people in both Australia and the Philippines, two countries already significantly affected by climate change, but with very different mental health systems, cultures, and resources. Using both interviews and surveys, I will spend the first year gaining a rich understanding of how young people aged 16 to 24 are thinking and feeling about the climate threats they face and both the opportunities and barriers they see for climate action to create the future they desire. I will explore how these psychological responses interact with the sense of agency they feel to address the challenges they're facing, the narratives they hold and told about climate change and climate action, the future they would like to see, and how their worries and feelings about climate change interact and influence their daily lives, the decisions they're making and ultimately their mental health.
I will also explore how they're currently coping with and adapting to the climate threats they're facing and finally, what they would like to see to protect their mental health and gain agency, while also keeping the onus firmly on leaders to act. In the second year, I will work with local communities to develop interventions that will help people process their emotions in the context of climate change. Imagine the future they want to see, develop healthy coping strategies and also find meaningful ways to engage that are sustainable for them and connect to local community initiatives. I will explore how these might vary in different cultures and different contexts, and they may include both self-guided interventions like different activities or a guided journal, as well as community based interventions and workshops or a combination. Ultimately, I want to work with young people to find out how we can protect their mental health while growing up in a changing climate and advocate with them for leaders of business and government to act in ways that will protect their future.
I'm very grateful for the opportunity of this fellowship to raise awareness of, understand and respond to the mental health impacts of inheriting a climate emergency and the continued inaction of leaders, and ultimately to show how we can act together in ways that protect our minds as well as the planet. Thank you. Thank you Emma, Thank you very much.
We now welcome Emmanouil Proestakis He will tell us about the interest to look at tiny dust particles coming from space. Emmanouil the mic is yours. Thank you. So do you know that an increasing number of research studies reveal a high correlation between atmospheric dust and disorders induced on human health? It is estimated that this year an amount of approximately 6000 grams of mineral dust is admitted into the atmosphere.
This amount relates more or less to the equivalent in terms of weight to 30,000 cargo containers. It's one thing the atmosphere, this atmospheric dust layer resides for days can be transported over distances of thousands of kilometers. But our prior removal from the atmosphere through wet or dry deposition. Now this atmospheric dust layers are composed by mineral dust particles. They reduce the size of these dust particles in terms of diameter range between more than 100 micrometers, which is huge, is something like 2 to 3 human hair combined to approximately the smaller one of them smallest one of them to 0.1 micrometer, which is something like 100 times smaller than a human red blood cell.
It figures that the smaller the dust particles, the higher the risk, the impact, the impact factor on human health, more specifically, the category of the small dust particles, the fine, fine mode as coal can penetrate deep in our lungs, leading to, among others, allergic reactions, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer. And there are even studies that connect the atmospheric dust with meningitis pandemics. So the AXA project that observation for air quality aims for addressing the three main scientific objectives. First of all, to quantify the fine mode of dust, which is the inhalable component of dust that resides within the planetary boundary layer, which is the atmospheric layer close to their surface.
The second objective is to quantify the extent of change of the fine mode of dust within the planetary boundary layer. During the past two decades, I covered areas densely populated and megacities, but also try to determine the areas where it is foreseen within the next few years to exceed World Health Organization air quality guidelines in terms of concentration and the final objective is to try to address the question whether in theory the answer is both if it to what extent it is possible to, through satellite based earth observation, to increase our understanding capacity of meningitis through study cases of outbreaks in the cycle as reported by the World Health Organisation. Thank you. Thank you, Emmanouil. We will now welcome Dr. Lareb Dean. She will tell us about her research on the health impact of climate change induced pollution.
Lareb. Over 7 million people die every year, annually, prematurely from breathing air pollution, and we can't even quantify the additional annual deaths from exposure to extreme weather events associated to climate change. My goal is to try to understand how these components interact in order to minimize future development of disease. Air pollution is composed of solids, liquids and gases, including very small particles known as particulate matter, which are comprised primarily of carbon but also have associated metals and chemicals.
These are formed naturally, but also from human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, including diesel and carbon in cars. And they are continuing to increase, especially in developing nations. Once inhaled, they can penetrate deep into the lungs and also into the bloodstream. So they are often classified by size and this is important because it's often the smallest ones that are invisible, that contribute most to negative health outcomes, such as lung and heart disease, things like asthma and heart attacks.
Additionally, global temperatures are rising and we are seeing increasingly frequent and extreme heat waves, which are also known to contribute to to stress the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and indeed cause excess mortality. Notably, both of these exposures, air pollution and heat waves will be more harmful to certain vulnerable populations like the young, the elderly and those with preexisting lung disorders. And this is due to a number of factors, including the young children tend to have growing lungs that are more vulnerable in childhood, as well as a natural decline in lung function with old age. So really, really vulnerable populations in society. So we're at a stage where we know that air pollution drives climate change and is itself increased by global warming, but the combined risk from the two is still poorly understood. So in my project I will be looking to first expose lung cells to particles collected locally in the United Kingdom and heat, and then combine the two to understand first the individual risk and then the combined risk to both of these exposures in the system.
I'll then be looking at the effects of these exposures in a co culture of lung and blood cells to try and understand the systemic response, testing the permeability. And finally, I will be looking at the effect of these exposures on cardiac cells to try and understand any potential impact on the heart. So altogether, these techniques will allow me to hopefully understand the temperature and health interactions which may influence health outcomes so that collectively we can reduce adverse exposures. And hopefully this will help us live healthier, happier and longer lives. Thank you. Again.
And now we're going to welcome to Dr. Tove Hoffman and we're going to hear about mosquitos and ticks. You can go. Did you know that blood feeding arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks kill about 1 million people each year, which is about half of the population in Paris. Of all blood feeding arthropods mosquitoes exert The greatest impact, as mosquito borne diseases kill about 800,000 people annually making mosquitoes actually the deadliest animals on Earth. However, in temperate regions such as in Europe and North America, it is ticks that insert the greatest impact and also transmit the greatest variety of pathogens of all blood feeding arthropods.
During the past decades, diseases spread by mosquitoes and ticks have increased their impact on the human health as a consequence of climate change, globalization and trade and currently mosquito and tick borne diseases are spreading and with an increase in disease outbreaks in subtropical and temperate regions of the world, however, little is known about the capacity of arthropod born pathogens to cause disease outbreaks and establish in temperate regions, since most research has been performed under tropical and subtropical conditions. So we will therefore in this AXA project investigate the impact of climate change on mosquito and tick borne infections in temperate regions. Our project includes three parts.
In the first part, we will collect ticks and record climatic data and we will analyze the ticks for tickborne pathogens such as tick borne encephalitis virus. We also aim to engage citizens in the monitoring of the spread of local and foreign tick species by developing a smartphone application that can be used as a tick reporting system. With this data, we will learn if climate change result in geographic spread of more ticks, more ticks with pathogens and whether such increases are correlated with more human infections in temperate regions. In the second part of the project, we will perform infection experiments on tropical mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus and Chikungunya Virus to study how they can replicate and persist in mosquitoes at summer and winter temperatures in central and northern Europe. And this knowledge is crucial to predict the potential of tropical viruses to overcome the seasonal changes that occur in temperate regions.
In the third and last part of the project, we will use to generate the data to model the risk and improve the predictions of outbreaks and establishment of mosquito and tick borne diseases in temperate regions and the knowledge gained from this study will help to prevent mosquito and tick borne infections in humans in temperate regions in the future. Thank you. Thank you Tove, thank you. Now we're going to switch to teams and to the online people, to hear first about Choo Yoon Yi, hi Choo Yoon. You're going to talk about the need to adapt care homes to indoor heat.
Thank you. Imagine the weather forecast predicts 30 degrees for tomorrow. Then what is the temperature is in your room? If you are young or a healthy adult, you may just feel warm or hot, and say "What a hot day". However, some people must be at risk. Or maybe one of your loving family.
Due to climate change, there are more and more extreme weather events. Heat waves are a good example. Such atypical weather events are likely to be typical in the coming decades.
Accordingly, there are there is growing concern about the likelihood of a heat related health risk. To mitigate climate change globally. The target now aims to achieve net zero carbon emissions within the timeframe by 2050 at the latest, Which is consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 degree. This means we we must all act to reduce carbon emissions to as close to zero as possible by 2050, including buildings. Keeping cool indoors can be a possible solution.
But how much energy is needed? The likelihood of increasing cooling demand will be a significant challenge to the target of net zero emissions. Finally, the question here is how buildings can effectively and efficiently provide a safe and comfortable indoor environment while using the least amount of energy. People living in care homes who need long-term care have been identified as one of the most vulnerable groups for heat related health risk. Urgently looking at those populations, this AXA Fellowship aims to renovate care homes fit for the future. This requires a better understanding of onsite energy flow pathways from the surrounding environment to the people inside. To this end, we will develop a bottom-up care homes type energy modeling framework at city to reasonable scale, to account for local diversity of urban microclimates and population characteristics.
This will allow us to identify where people are at risk under current and future climate and to develop environmental design interventions to mitigate indoor heat risk, while achieving net zero by 2050. The modeling framework will be dynamic to capture the ongoing changes that occur in care homes and open source to support its application 00:20:20:10 - 00:20:24:10 to different regional context, leading to uncovering 00:20:24:10 - 00:20:28:18 regional differences in heat exposure of vulnerability 00:20:29:12 - 00:20:31:23 and responses. 00:20:32:01 - 00:20:34:17 Indoor heat risk is preventable.
00:20:35:04 - 00:20:36:07 Thank you. 00:20:36:17 - 00:20:37:22 Thank you. 00:20:37:24 - 00:20:41:02 We're going to now travel to Australia to 00:20:41:06 - 00:20:45:06 welcome Melanie Lowe and she's going to talk about 00:20:45:06 - 00:20:48:02 research on city planning indicator.
00:20:48:09 - 00:20:50:20 Melanie, you hear us? You're good. 00:20:51:12 - 00:20:52:14 You're good to go. 00:20:52:14 - 00:20:56:03 Will your city be a healthy place to live as the climate changes? 00:20:56:16 - 00:20:58:23 What about your local neighborhood? 00:20:58:23 - 00:21:02:04 Over half the world's population now live in urban areas, 00:21:02:11 - 00:21:05:17 and cities are more exposed to climate change risks 00:21:05:17 - 00:21:08:12 such as flooding, heatwaves and air pollution.
00:21:09:08 - 00:21:12:14 Climate resilient cities are made up of healthy neighborhoods 00:21:12:23 - 00:21:16:08 that can survive, adapt and importantly, thrive 00:21:16:08 - 00:21:18:12 in the face of climate related hazards. 00:21:19:18 - 00:21:21:17 Within and between cities 00:21:21:17 - 00:21:25:05 there can be stark differences in exposure to climate health 00:21:25:05 - 00:21:28:11 risks, and there's many examples of this globally. 00:21:29:05 - 00:21:32:18 Three cities that I'm researching are shown here on the slide. 00:21:33:23 - 00:21:36:03 Chennai in India at the top left 00:21:36:10 - 00:21:38:11 where air pollution is worsening. 00:21:39:09 - 00:21:41:18 Mexico City at the bottom left. 00:21:42:08 - 00:21:44:18 Where we see marked differences in the amount 00:21:44:19 - 00:21:46:24 of greenery between neighboring areas.
00:21:47:23 - 00:21:51:11 And on the right, my home city of Melbourne in Australia, 00:21:51:21 - 00:21:55:09 where recent major flooding has shown that urban development 00:21:55:17 - 00:21:58:20 has been allowed in high risk flood prone areas. 00:22:00:03 - 00:22:02:21 Indicators can provide city planners 00:22:02:21 - 00:22:06:24 with much needed information about the extent to which policies 00:22:07:05 - 00:22:10:21 and built environments support healthy, resilient cities 00:22:11:05 - 00:22:13:13 and to monitor progress over time. 00:22:14:16 - 00:22:18:14 So this research aims to develop and test indicators 00:22:18:15 - 00:22:19:23 of city resilience 00:22:19:23 - 00:22:23:01 to inform planning that reduces the health impacts of 00:22:23:01 - 00:22:23:23 climate change.
00:22:25:04 - 00:22:27:17 All create indicators of a range of factors 00:22:28:00 - 00:22:31:18 for example, disaster risk, green areas of the city, 00:22:32:08 - 00:22:35:01 urban biodiversity, sustainable transport, 00:22:35:14 - 00:22:38:01 land use diversity and air quality. 00:22:39:05 - 00:22:42:22 Policy indicators will identify where the cities have the right 00:22:43:11 - 00:22:46:17 transport, housing and urban design policies in place 00:22:47:00 - 00:22:49:21 to support climate resilience. 00:22:49:21 - 00:22:51:05 Using open data 00:22:51:05 - 00:22:54:19 I will also measure and map built environment features 00:22:54:19 - 00:22:58:00 on the ground to unmask spatial disparities 00:22:58:00 - 00:23:00:09 between cities and within cities. 00:23:01:08 - 00:23:04:17 These comparisons at the citywide and neighborhood scales 00:23:05:00 - 00:23:07:23 will help decision makers to target interventions 00:23:08:04 - 00:23:11:08 in areas that need it most.
00:23:11:08 - 00:23:13:13 I'll test the indicators by calculating them 00:23:13:14 - 00:23:15:14 for diverse cities internationally. 00:23:16:14 - 00:23:20:04 City scorecards for each city will be shared widely 00:23:20:06 - 00:23:21:23 via the Global Observatory 00:23:21:23 - 00:23:25:06 of Healthy and Sustainable Cities, which I currently co-lead. 00:23:26:00 - 00:23:29:16 The indicators will become part of the Global Observatory's 1000 00:23:29:16 - 00:23:30:22 cities challenge. 00:23:30:22 - 00:23:32:24 Supporting any city in the world 00:23:32:24 - 00:23:34:21 to assess their climate resilience.
00:23:35:20 - 00:23:36:06 In this 00:23:36:06 - 00:23:39:17 way, the project aims to generate evidence and indicators 00:23:40:00 - 00:23:43:05 that will help ensure that in the face of climate change, 00:23:43:11 - 00:23:47:00 all cities are healthy places for all urban residents. 00:23:47:13 - 00:23:48:09 Thank you. 00:23:48:15 - 00:23:49:13 Thank you Melanie. 00:23:49:17 - 00:23:51:19 Thank you very much.
00:23:51:20 - 00:23:55:05 And now it's time for the last one of the first part. 00:23:55:08 - 00:23:58:00 We're going to hear from Tamara Szentivanyi from Hungary, 00:23:58:06 - 00:23:58:18 and she's 00:23:58:18 - 00:24:02:11 going to talk about climate change and birds induced disease. 00:24:02:23 - 00:24:05:03 Tamara, you're good to go. 00:24:05:14 - 00:24:08:13 Many of us have met the definition of one health. 00:24:08:17 - 00:24:12:19 One health is a unifying approach, aiming to sustain public balance 00:24:12:19 - 00:24:16:17 and optimize the health of people, animals and ecosystems, 00:24:17:00 - 00:24:21:00 and is threatened by multiple factors such as climate change, 00:24:21:06 - 00:24:21:15 which is 00:24:21:15 - 00:24:24:21 one of our greatest challenge in the current and coming decades 00:24:25:10 - 00:24:29:24 within animal health, avian health which faces conservation issues 00:24:29:24 - 00:24:33:18 due to diseases and human health, which may be vulnerable 00:24:33:18 - 00:24:36:03 due to diseases transmitted by animals.
00:24:36:24 - 00:24:40:11 Several vector borne pathogens may be transmitted to animals 00:24:40:11 - 00:24:41:15 and to humans. 00:24:41:15 - 00:24:45:02 For example, Arboviruses, which are viral diseases 00:24:45:02 - 00:24:48:00 that are transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes. 00:24:48:20 - 00:24:51:19 Several arboviruses are well known, such as Zika 00:24:51:19 - 00:24:55:02 virus, dengue virus and West Nile virus. 00:24:55:20 - 00:24:58:04 They manifest in a variety of symptoms, 00:24:58:04 - 00:25:00:13 from mild to severe in humans. 00:25:01:05 - 00:25:03:15 So by using birds to study these diseases 00:25:04:01 - 00:25:07:04 first, some arboviruses are commonly found in birds 00:25:07:06 - 00:25:10:14 in all corners of the world with high diversity. 00:25:11:01 - 00:25:13:19 Also, birds are ecologically and species diverse 00:25:14:01 - 00:25:16:11 and are strongly impacted by climate change.
00:25:17:12 - 00:25:18:15 My work focuses 00:25:18:15 - 00:25:21:16 on understanding several aspects of this research 00:25:21:16 - 00:25:25:07 field using field collected data and literature data. 00:25:26:04 - 00:25:29:18 First, I aim to understand how climate change vulnerability 00:25:29:18 - 00:25:33:04 of different species affect the occurrence of Arboviruses. 00:25:34:05 - 00:25:36:16 Also, I am interested in understanding 00:25:36:16 - 00:25:37:21 how does the migratory 00:25:37:21 - 00:25:41:04 behavior impacts the origin and occurrence of these diseases. 00:25:41:19 - 00:25:42:08 Lastly, 00:25:42:08 - 00:25:46:06 I aim to evaluate the reservoir competence of defender species, 00:25:46:13 - 00:25:49:24 meaning that rich birds are able to host more pathogens. 00:25:50:19 - 00:25:54:02 My fieldwork would take place in Hungary, which is a major bird 00:25:54:03 - 00:25:58:13 migratory site hosting about 400 bird species, representing 00:25:58:14 - 00:26:01:12 about 43% of the European fauna. 00:26:02:09 - 00:26:06:05 I will also use published data to cover other European species 00:26:06:06 - 00:26:08:14 and to gather a more representative dataset.
00:26:09:07 - 00:26:12:05 So overall, why is it important on a bigger scale? 00:26:12:18 - 00:26:14:00 First, we lack of data 00:26:14:00 - 00:26:15:09 about these emerging diseases 00:26:15:09 - 00:26:17:11 and therefore we need more surveillance. 00:26:18:06 - 00:26:21:10 Also, using this information, we can better recognize 00:26:21:10 - 00:26:24:24 disease emergence patterns and predict potential threats 00:26:24:24 - 00:26:27:12 to human and animal populations. 00:26:28:02 - 00:26:31:12 Lastly, using this knowledge, we can predict and potentially 00:26:31:12 - 00:26:34:15 prevent future outbreaks helping the current and 00:26:34:15 - 00:26:37:16 upcoming generations.
00:26:39:03 - 00:26:42:08 I now invite the fellows from the Joint AXA Unesco 00:26:42:12 - 00:26:45:21 Fellowship on Coastal Livelihoods to join us over there. 00:26:46:23 - 00:26:49:07 I invite first Andrea Ficchi to speak and he's going to tell us 00:26:49:08 - 00:26:53:02 about a new approach to protect population for flood 00:26:53:02 - 00:26:55:20 risk using machine learning. 00:26:56:24 - 00:26:59:01 You can go, Andrea. 00:26:59:02 - 00:27:02:19 About 2 billion people around the world are at risk of flooding.
00:27:03:15 - 00:27:07:02 This estimate includes people living in coastal areas in river 00:27:07:02 - 00:27:10:17 floodplains, in locations that are estimated 00:27:11:01 - 00:27:13:07 to experience some level of inundation 00:27:13:11 - 00:27:16:08 during extreme flood events that can pose a significant 00:27:16:08 - 00:27:18:15 risk to lives and livelihoods. 00:27:18:15 - 00:27:20:19 The majority of these people live in low and middle 00:27:20:19 - 00:27:24:19 income countries where the most severe impacts are experienced. 00:27:25:00 - 00:27:27:09 Also affecting poverty and development. 00:27:27:17 - 00:27:30:14 And here you can see an example from a flood event 00:27:30:22 - 00:27:34:19 of how bad these events can be. For an event 00:27:34:20 - 00:27:37:22 that happened in 2019, in Mozambique, in southern Africa, 00:27:38:10 - 00:27:40:22 brought by Tropical Cyclone Idai, which left 00:27:40:22 - 00:27:44:08 more than 2 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. 00:27:44:17 - 00:27:46:08 that's causing 00:27:46:08 - 00:27:48:19 more than a thousand fatalities across different countries 00:27:49:02 - 00:27:50:11 And you can see on the left an image 00:27:50:11 - 00:27:54:02 showing the extent of the flooded areas in red, 00:27:54:09 - 00:27:58:12 which cover an area of the size of the country of Luxembourg.
00:27:58:23 - 00:28:01:01 And on the right, you can see the impacts on the ground. 00:28:01:03 - 00:28:02:20 From a picture from one of the towns 00:28:02:20 - 00:28:04:13 in Mozambique, they were completely flooded. 00:28:05:12 - 00:28:07:22 And so these images, these examples 00:28:07:22 - 00:28:10:11 show us how important, and urgent it is 00:28:10:14 - 00:28:14:23 to take actions and to develop adaptation 00:28:14:23 - 00:28:17:15 solutions to reduce the impacts of these events. 00:28:17:23 - 00:28:22:14 My AXA Research Fellowship Project aims to support decision 00:28:22:14 - 00:28:26:08 making to increase the resilience of coastal livelihoods 00:28:26:08 - 00:28:31:10 and communities by improving flood predictions and models 00:28:32:01 - 00:28:35:06 that provide predictions and projections 00:28:35:07 - 00:28:39:12 of extreme rainfall, coastal floods, river floods 00:28:40:02 - 00:28:42:09 and by improving them for decision making. 00:28:43:12 - 00:28:45:13 And the first that we will evaluate 00:28:46:07 - 00:28:49:03 the existing climate services and flood services, 00:28:49:16 - 00:28:52:08 and we will do this by comparing them 00:28:52:08 - 00:28:54:09 with observations from multiple sources, 00:28:54:09 - 00:28:57:02 including satellite data, local impact 00:28:58:00 - 00:29:01:15 and river flows and sea level data. 00:29:02:18 - 00:29:06:08 And second, we will improve these datasets 00:29:06:09 - 00:29:08:07 using machine learning techniques 00:29:08:07 - 00:29:11:02 that can learn directly from the data how to 00:29:11:16 - 00:29:16:20 improve and correct the data, and especially focusing 00:29:16:20 - 00:29:20:22 also on the compound effects of coastal floods and river floods.
00:29:21:08 - 00:29:22:18 And we will tailor 00:29:22:18 - 00:29:25:19 and customize these improvements to the needs of decision makers. 00:29:25:19 - 00:29:29:11 Focusing on two main applications Humanitarians for early action 00:29:29:18 - 00:29:35:04 and insurance, especially for crop flood related insurance. And 00:29:36:04 - 00:29:36:17 we will 00:29:36:17 - 00:29:39:14 gather information through surveys and interviews 00:29:39:18 - 00:29:44:04 so that we can drive our machine algorithms to improve the datasets 00:29:44:04 - 00:29:45:00 in a way 00:29:45:00 - 00:29:48:00 that is relevant for action and can support better decisions.
00:29:48:07 - 00:29:51:01 By doing these alongside other research initiatives 00:29:51:15 - 00:29:54:12 We will also Collaborate with, we will 00:29:55:08 - 00:29:57:14 contribute to reducing the impacts of these events 00:29:57:14 - 00:30:00:23 and bring us one step closer to never seeing such 00:30:00:24 - 00:30:03:09 a devastating impacts happen again. 00:30:06:03 - 00:30:07:14 Thank you, Andrea. 00:30:07:14 - 00:30:08:20 Thank you very much. 00:30:08:20 - 00:30:12:04 We're going to now welcome Marina Sanz- Martín 00:30:12:04 - 00:30:16:15 and we're going to focus on marine protected areas and fishers. 00:30:17:14 - 00:30:19:15 Mariana.
The floor is yours. 00:30:19:15 - 00:30:22:24 Joe Strummer, a great guitarist 00:30:23:03 - 00:30:26:03 and philosopher from the inimitable The Clash. 00:30:26:15 - 00:30:30:17 One said, Should I stay 00:30:30:17 - 00:30:33:18 or should I go? 00:30:34:14 - 00:30:38:10 This is a critical question in the context of climate change. 00:30:39:06 - 00:30:41:10 There are many species moving towards 00:30:41:10 - 00:30:44:10 the poles and also towards greater depth.
00:30:45:11 - 00:30:46:14 Many fisheries 00:30:46:14 - 00:30:49:02 are navigating farther distances 00:30:49:09 - 00:30:51:15 and setting their nets at greater 00:30:51:15 - 00:30:53:07 depth. 00:30:53:07 - 00:30:55:13 What is happening at the regional scale? 00:30:56:00 - 00:30:58:08 What's happening in the Mediterranean Sea? 00:30:58:08 - 00:31:00:11 Species cannot go farther north. 00:31:00:18 - 00:31:03:12 And they are stuck. 00:31:03:12 - 00:31:05:21 One key international tool 00:31:05:21 - 00:31:08:12 are marine protected areas.
00:31:08:12 - 00:31:11:11 In some of these areas, fishing is forbidding. 00:31:11:19 - 00:31:14:10 They are called marine restricted areas. 00:31:15:01 - 00:31:16:20 However, none of them 00:31:16:20 - 00:31:19:00 are designed with climate Change in mind. 00:31:19:12 - 00:31:20:22 Can you believe it? 00:31:20:22 - 00:31:24:14 Neither are the current fisheries policies. 00:31:24:24 - 00:31:26:04 Nor the networks 00:31:26:04 - 00:31:28:08 That these marine protected areas conform. 00:31:29:11 - 00:31:32:13 This is exactly the goal of this project, 00:31:33:14 - 00:31:35:24 using the models that will 00:31:35:24 - 00:31:38:09 combine different sources of data, 00:31:38:16 - 00:31:42:12 we aim to create and provide climate smart strategies.
00:31:43:08 - 00:31:46:02 We are going to integrate three types of data. 00:31:46:20 - 00:31:50:14 First of all, fish density and fish size of a species 00:31:50:22 - 00:31:54:16 inside of these marine protected areas from divers 00:31:54:16 - 00:31:58:20 that have been diving for so many years in these protected regions. 00:32:00:03 - 00:32:01:19 Second, the fishers 00:32:01:19 - 00:32:05:09 catches from ports close to these protected areas. 00:32:06:05 - 00:32:08:23 And third, the velocity of the climate change, 00:32:09:11 - 00:32:12:15 which is based in historical, spatial temporal 00:32:12:15 - 00:32:15:12 data of temperature.
00:32:15:12 - 00:32:17:13 Combining all these data 00:32:17:13 - 00:32:18:18 we can provide not 00:32:18:18 - 00:32:19:21 only how fast 00:32:19:21 - 00:32:23:17 the climate is changing, but also towards which direction are 00:32:23:18 - 00:32:27:11 species expected to move. 00:32:27:23 - 00:32:31:15 Once we have all this knowledge, we will include them in decision 00:32:31:15 - 00:32:36:15 making tools that will help us maximize the benefits, 00:32:36:21 - 00:32:37:23 the social economical 00:32:37:23 - 00:32:41:07 benefits, as well as the benefits of the biodiversity. 00:32:42:05 - 00:32:42:21 Our project 00:32:42:21 - 00:32:46:24 will provide climate smart strategies, making the 00:32:46:24 - 00:32:48:11 Mediterranean Sea 00:32:48:11 - 00:32:51:20 A better place for the fish, but also for the people. 00:32:52:19 - 00:32:53:21 The science we 00:32:53:21 - 00:32:55:17 need for the ocean, 00:32:55:17 - 00:32:56:23 and the fisheries 00:32:56:23 - 00:32:59:06 We want. 00:33:00:12 - 00:33:02:02 Thank you very much, Marina.
00:33:02:02 - 00:33:03:22 Thanks. You can go back to your seats. 00:33:03:22 - 00:33:06:09 And now we welcome Michela Ravanelli, 00:33:06:09 - 00:33:08:11 And after floods earlier, 00:33:08:11 - 00:33:09:24 here comes the tsunamis, 00:33:09:24 - 00:33:11:15 And Michela is going to talk about her 00:33:11:15 - 00:33:15:03 research on how to mitigate tsunami risks. 00:33:16:00 - 00:33:16:20 Michela, 00:33:16:20 - 00:33:19:04 You can go now.
00:33:19:04 - 00:33:21:23 So when we think about GNSS or more generally 00:33:21:23 - 00:33:24:09 about global navigation satellite system, 00:33:24:09 - 00:33:27:06 the so called GNSS, we think about positioning. 00:33:27:12 - 00:33:28:07 So we go to open 00:33:28:07 - 00:33:31:05 Google Maps to go to that bar or to go to the shop. 00:33:31:19 - 00:33:34:02 Actually, GNSS are so much more. 00:33:34:14 - 00:33:38:09 For example, did you know that GNSS can give us information 00:33:38:09 - 00:33:41:16 about tsunamis, but how is it possible? 00:33:42:06 - 00:33:45:17 Actually, tsunamis can produce some kind of waves. 00:33:46:01 - 00:33:49:11 These waves can travel across the atmosphere, reaching 00:33:49:11 - 00:33:52:14 the upper part of the atmosphere, the so called ionosphere, 00:33:52:21 - 00:33:56:23 and perturbing its compositions, that is ions and electrons.
00:33:57:13 - 00:33:58:01 There, 00:33:58:01 - 00:34:01:21 This perturbation is also detectable through the GN signal. 00:34:03:03 - 00:34:05:06 My project, called Altruist 00:34:05:21 - 00:34:09:22 aims at delivering this principle and as a final goal 00:34:09:22 - 00:34:13:11 to the improvement of the accuracy and reliability 00:34:13:16 - 00:34:16:05 of tsunami early warning systems. 00:34:16:05 - 00:34:20:05 The project is based on methodology that allows us to 00:34:20:05 - 00:34:23:10 simultaneously study what happens on the ground 00:34:23:13 - 00:34:26:01 and what happens in the sky, in the ionosphere, 00:34:26:15 - 00:34:30:09 to give us information about tsunamis in real time. 00:34:32:04 - 00:34:35:08 So instead of tracking cars 00:34:35:11 - 00:34:38:22 or people's position, we go chasing after tsunamis. 00:34:39:10 - 00:34:42:05 But what is their main advantage they may not prevent? 00:34:42:05 - 00:34:43:06 That is just 00:34:43:06 - 00:34:46:22 that if we look at the sky, so we look at the ionosphere, 00:34:47:03 - 00:34:49:24 we can have information over open oceans.
00:34:50:03 - 00:34:51:06 That is where tsunamis 00:34:51:06 - 00:34:54:11 are happening and where there are not so much weak infrastructure. 00:34:55:07 - 00:34:58:10 And then the second part of the project, the will have 00:34:59:03 - 00:35:02:19 to prove the effectiveness of the methodology by implementing 00:35:02:19 - 00:35:06:16 the methodology itself into an actual GNSS network. 00:35:06:16 - 00:35:08:23 That is the nectar of the Volcanology 00:35:09:00 - 00:35:12:18 and Seismological Observatory of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. 00:35:13:09 - 00:35:17:14 This because up to now any kind of GNSS information 00:35:17:14 - 00:35:20:08 mission is using tsunami early warning system. 00:35:21:00 - 00:35:23:24 And this would have been very useful in 2004 00:35:24:06 - 00:35:29:02 when the Sumatra and earthquake shock the southeast part of Asia.
00:35:29:11 - 00:35:32:10 In that case, the tsunami hit the Sri 00:35:32:10 - 00:35:35:18 Lankan coast about after one hour and 45 minutes. 00:35:36:03 - 00:35:38:13 And the warning was issued. 00:35:38:13 - 00:35:41:14 Later studies demonstrated that in that case, 00:35:41:14 - 00:35:44:20 the first information coming from the ionosphere.
00:35:44:20 - 00:35:49:02 So coming from the sky related to the propagation of the earthquake 00:35:49:02 - 00:35:53:05 and that of the tsunami was available only 50 minutes after. 00:35:53:18 - 00:35:57:04 Of course, at the time, the technology was mature enough. 00:35:57:04 - 00:36:01:02 But this is just to remind ourselves that we can really save 00:36:01:02 - 00:36:01:23 lives by 00:36:01:23 - 00:36:05:14 looking at the sky. 00:36:05:14 - 00:36:07:02 Thank you, Michela.
00:36:08:04 - 00:36:08:19 We have 00:36:08:19 - 00:36:12:03 now the last one in-person of the second group. 00:36:12:09 - 00:36:16:03 We now welcome Valerie Hagger and she's going to talk about 00:36:16:03 - 00:36:20:19 how can community help with resilient coastal areas. 00:36:21:14 - 00:36:22:20 Valerie.
00:36:22:23 - 00:36:24:08 Thank you, Elodie. 00:36:24:08 - 00:36:28:20 Okay, so mangroves are special forests, 00:36:28:23 - 00:36:30:01 because the trees live 00:36:30:01 - 00:36:33:10 in salty water and they grow where the land meets the sea. 00:36:34:00 - 00:36:35:08 But did you know that mangroves 00:36:35:08 - 00:36:38:21 protect over 15 million people worldwide, 00:36:39:09 - 00:36:42:03 by reducing 00:36:42:03 - 00:36:44:24 waves and tide levels during storm surges. 00:36:45:07 - 00:36:48:21 They also fight climate change by storing large amounts of carbon 00:36:48:21 - 00:36:50:18 in their trees and the soils. 00:36:50:18 - 00:36:53:12 Therefore, building ground level and keeping pace 00:36:53:13 - 00:36:55:02 with sea level rise. 00:36:55:02 - 00:36:58:18 But unfortunately, about one third of all mangroves have been lost.
00:36:59:04 - 00:37:01:07 This is more than the size of Switzerland 00:37:01:07 - 00:37:03:01 and it's mainly from human impacts. 00:37:04:03 - 00:37:07:16 So understanding how we can reverse the continuing 00:37:07:17 - 00:37:11:04 global decline of mangroves is really important to support 00:37:11:11 - 00:37:14:01 coastal communities and healthy oceans. 00:37:14:19 - 00:37:17:01 In this project, I will investigate how 00:37:17:06 - 00:37:20:10 community and indigenous management of mangroves turned 00:37:20:13 - 00:37:22:00 Community forestry 00:37:22:00 - 00:37:25:17 can enhance the protection and restoration of mangroves. 00:37:25:17 - 00:37:28:20 So under this approach, communities either own the forests 00:37:29:00 - 00:37:32:12 or they give them permission from the state to take the forest 00:37:32:12 - 00:37:36:13 products to sell to earn income or to use themselves. 00:37:36:22 - 00:37:38:08 So in dry lands, community 00:37:38:08 - 00:37:42:02 forestry has been shown to reduce both forest loss and poverty, 00:37:42:06 - 00:37:45:03 leading to conservation and social outcomes.
00:37:45:03 - 00:37:48:09 But in mangroves, community forestry is an emerging practice, 00:37:48:12 - 00:37:50:12 although communities depend on them, 00:37:50:12 - 00:37:54:00 especially in developing countries, for their livelihoods, 00:37:54:00 - 00:37:56:19 for fishing, for timber and for fuelwood. 00:37:57:18 - 00:37:59:20 So the aims of my project are to identify 00:37:59:20 - 00:38:01:07 what are the factors that influence 00:38:01:07 - 00:38:04:00 the success of community forestry projects. 00:38:04:09 - 00:38:07:04 So this includes things like country policy, land 00:38:07:05 - 00:38:10:24 tenure, indigenous rights, the forestry management practice, 00:38:11:24 - 00:38:14:00 gender and so forth.
00:38:14:09 - 00:38:18:11 So I will also assess whether the socio economic context 00:38:18:11 - 00:38:20:04 and the forestry management practices, 00:38:20:04 - 00:38:22:04 how that affects mangrove health. 00:38:22:04 - 00:38:25:00 And I'll do this by focusing on case studies in countries 00:38:25:06 - 00:38:30:19 such as Fiji, Myanmar, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico and Australia. 00:38:31:14 - 00:38:34:20 So identifying these factors can help inform 00:38:34:20 - 00:38:38:11 policy and programs to promote successful community forestry. 00:38:38:19 - 00:38:41:16 So for organizations like conservation organizations, 00:38:41:16 - 00:38:42:21 this can enable smarter 00:38:42:21 - 00:38:45:18 spending of money in community mangrove initiatives. 00:38:46:04 - 00:38:49:15 But for insurance companies, investing in mangrove protection 00:38:50:01 - 00:38:53:06 can result in reducing damages from flooding to properties 00:38:53:06 - 00:38:56:09 by more than 65 billion USD per year.
00:38:57:05 - 00:38:59:11 So in summary, community based mangrove 00:38:59:11 - 00:39:02:16 management has the potential to protect and restore mangroves. 00:39:03:01 - 00:39:05:22 And this is really important for addressing the global 00:39:05:22 - 00:39:08:15 biodiversity and climate change crisis that we're 00:39:09:24 - 00:39:12:12 that we're facing whilst protecting coastlines. 00:39:12:20 - 00:39:18:03 Thank you. 00:39:18:03 - 00:39:18:24 Thank you very much Valerie. 00:39:18:24 - 00:39:22:09 you can go back to your seats now. 00:39:22:09 - 00:39:25:03 We're going to move to the online participants.
00:39:26:11 - 00:39:27:05 Hi, everyone online 00:39:27:05 - 00:39:31:21 we will start with welcoming Megnaa Mehtta, 00:39:31:21 - 00:39:35:18 She's going to talk about livelihoods in the coastal areas. 00:39:36:08 - 00:39:37:19 Thank you. 00:39:37:20 - 00:39:40:22 So this is 19 year old Sunita 00:39:41:01 - 00:39:42:18 who at the age of 17 00:39:42:18 - 00:39:45:24 was the mother of two children and was married to a man 00:39:45:24 - 00:39:49:04 who was unable to find work and constantly beat her.
00:39:50:00 - 00:39:52:19 She lives on the edge of an island in the sunderbans 00:39:52:23 - 00:39:55:04 on the borders of India and Bangladesh. 00:39:55:20 - 00:39:58:12 The Sunderbans are the last remaining largest 00:39:58:12 - 00:40:01:18 mangrove forest in the world, home to Bengal tigers 00:40:02:11 - 00:40:04:22 along side being a biodiversity hotspot. 00:40:04:22 - 00:40:07:22 The region is endemic to cyclones, storm surges 00:40:07:22 - 00:40:11:22 and cyclone water floods. As a result of climate change, 00:40:11:22 - 00:40:13:05 The intensity of floods 00:40:13:05 - 00:40:16:08 and cyclones are predicted to increase in the years ahead. 00:40:17:13 - 00:40:18:09 Climate change 00:40:18:09 - 00:40:21:01 is a global challenge that affects all of us, 00:40:21:09 - 00:40:23:21 but it does not affect us all equally.
00:40:24:20 - 00:40:27:17 Building on seven years of research in the disaster 00:40:27:17 - 00:40:32:19 prone coastlines of the Bengal data, home to 7.2 million people, 00:40:32:21 - 00:40:36:00 my research aims to understand how women like Sunita 00:40:36:01 - 00:40:38:24 understand their own risks and vulnerabilities. 00:40:39:22 - 00:40:41:05 Let me tell you a little bit more 00:40:41:05 - 00:40:42:03 About Sunita. 00:40:42:03 - 00:40:45:06 Sunita's husband suffers from an undiagnosed mental illness. 00:40:45:19 - 00:40:48:09 He was hard of hearing and had a speech impairment 00:40:48:18 - 00:40:51:19 that was often made fun of by other villagers.
00:40:51:19 - 00:40:54:12 The one person he could wield his power over 00:40:54:13 - 00:40:57:09 was the only person weaker than him, his wife. 00:40:58:13 - 00:41:01:08 When the beatings get really bad, as was the case 00:41:01:08 - 00:41:05:01 when she was pregnant with her second child, Sunita runs away. 00:41:05:13 - 00:41:08:08 sometimes at the house of her parents, sometimes 00:41:08:08 - 00:41:11:10 to neighboring small towns to do construction work.
00:41:11:10 - 00:41:13:17 But these are not viable options. 00:41:13:17 - 00:41:16:17 And she is compelled to return to her abusive husband. 00:41:17:12 - 00:41:20:20 After a super cyclone had devastated their home last year, 00:41:20:20 - 00:41:23:24 Sunita had begun providing sexual services to other men 00:41:24:00 - 00:41:26:10 in neighboring villages in exchange for money. 00:41:27:09 - 00:41:28:24 These are aspects of Sunita's 00:41:28:24 - 00:41:32:15 life that are not visible to short term visitors or journalists. 00:41:33:06 - 00:41:35:01 This is where I come in. 00:41:35:01 - 00:41:36:22 Trained as a social anthropologist, 00:41:36:22 - 00:41:37:23 I have already worked 00:41:37:23 - 00:41:40:01 in the sunderbans for seven years and have built 00:41:40:02 - 00:41:41:11 trust with communities 00:41:41:11 - 00:41:44:19 who live there with local NGOs and government bodies.
00:41:45:12 - 00:41:49:15 Just in the past few years, it is estimated that over 500,000 00:41:49:15 - 00:41:50:17 women and girls 00:41:50:17 - 00:41:53:18 put their bodies at risk in these vulnerable coastlines. 00:41:54:24 - 00:41:57:16 My intention is to understand the situation of women 00:41:57:16 - 00:42:00:00 like Sunita more holistically. 00:42:00:00 - 00:42:02:07 Her running away from her village, her attempts 00:42:02:07 - 00:42:05:01 to migrate out of the village and her taking on risky 00:42:05:01 - 00:42:09:09 livelihoods are not induced solely by climate change. 00:42:09:09 - 00:42:11:13 Climate change has to be understood 00:42:11:13 - 00:42:14:24 alongside long term preexisting vulnerabilities. 00:42:15:21 - 00:42:18:22 My research would involve conducting in-depth interviews, 00:42:18:22 - 00:42:23:11 collecting household and worksite surveys and migration histories. 00:42:23:22 - 00:42:26:01 I will be living with coastal communities, 00:42:26:01 - 00:42:28:03 undertaking their migration journeys 00:42:28:03 - 00:42:32:05 with them to better understand their daily struggles, broader 00:42:32:05 - 00:42:36:05 risks, livelihood opportunities, and the coping strategies 00:42:36:05 - 00:42:39:07 of women and girls in these vulnerable coastlines.
00:42:40:03 - 00:42:42:14 My interest is to be able to make sure that policies 00:42:42:15 - 00:42:46:15 on climate change, adaptation and gender can be informed 00:42:46:15 - 00:42:48:14 by the intricacies of the struggles 00:42:48:14 - 00:42:53:01 and stories of women like Sunita with comparisons across the world. 00:42:53:21 - 00:42:54:08 Thank you. 00:42:55:14 - 00:42:56:07 Thank you Megnaa. 00:42:56:14 - 00:42:58:10 Thank you very much.
00:42:58:10 - 00:43:01:11 We are now welcoming Emmanuel Mbaru 00:43:01:13 - 00:43:03:13 and he's going to talk about marine fisheries 00:43:03:13 - 00:43:07:06 and what we can do to help adapt to climate change. 00:43:07:21 - 00:43:10:08 Emmanuel the mic is yours. 00:43:11:10 - 00:43:15:02 Have you heard the phrase today's science for tomorrow's management? 00:43:15:13 - 00:43:18:03 Well, if not, my project is all about that. 00:43:18:15 - 00:43:19:24 I intend to use science 00:43:19:24 - 00:43:22:12 to help better manage our oceans in the future. 00:43:23:04 - 00:43:25:08 As the largest carbon sinks on the planet, 00:43:25:14 - 00:43:29:03 oceans are our closest allies against climate change, yet 00:43:29:04 - 00:43:30:19 they are under increasing pressure, 00:43:30:19 - 00:43:33:12 getting warmer, more acidic and deoxygenated. 00:43:34:03 - 00:43:37:24 This reality has led to changes in oceanic circulation, rising sea 00:43:37:24 - 00:43:41:11 levels, enhancing storm intensity, as well as changes 00:43:41:11 - 00:43:44:16 in the diversity and abundance of marine species.
00:43:45:05 - 00:43:48:19 Consequently, there is significant decline in marine fish 00:43:48:19 - 00:43:51:24 stock, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. 00:43:52:14 - 00:43:55:00 Coastal communities whose livelihood and economy 00:43:55:00 - 00:43:58:10 mainly rely on marine fisheries are facing severe threat 00:43:58:18 - 00:44:00:22 and coastal and marine ecosystems 00:44:00:22 - 00:44:04:08 resilience is strongly undermined, however, 00:44:04:08 - 00:44:07:03 despite the growing evidence that climate change will keep 00:44:07:18 - 00:44:10:24 the marine ecosystem, climate impacts on fish stocks, 00:44:11:01 - 00:44:14:02 fisheries and on the socio economic conditions of those 00:44:14:02 - 00:44:17:16 depending on these activities are rarely quantified. 00:44:17:16 - 00:44:20:04 During my fellowship at Lancaster University, 00:44:20:13 - 00:44:24:02 I will seek to quantify climate impacts on tropical fisheries, 00:44:24:02 - 00:44:25:05 including Kenya, 00:44:25:05 - 00:44:28:12 Tanzania and Mozambique, where impacts are expected 00:44:28:12 - 00:44:30:00 to be more severe. 00:44:30:00 - 00:44:32:10 In addition, my project will also examine 00:44:32:17 - 00:44:35:24 how different actors and institutions in fishery 00:44:35:24 - 00:44:39:19 governance the ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change. 00:44:40:06 - 00:44:43:18 To do this, I will adopt recent methods in climate modeling 00:44:43:18 - 00:44:47:20 that consider linkages between social and ecological dimensions 00:44:47:20 - 00:44:48:24 in fisheries systems.
00:44:48:24 - 00:44:51:04 in responding to climatic disturbances. 00:44:51:19 - 00:44:53:08 I will address the governance question 00:44:53:08 - 00:44:56:19 through the lens of evolving concepts and emerging tools 00:44:56:19 - 00:45:00:00 in natural resource management that is integral to governance, 00:45:00:03 - 00:45:02:17 institutional ecology and network analysis. 00:45:03:08 - 00:45:07:01 Interactive governance emphasizes solving societal problems 00:45:07:01 - 00:45:09:01 and creating societal opportunities 00:45:09:07 - 00:45:10:04 through interactions 00:45:10:04 - 00:45:12:10 between large numbers of governance actors, 00:45:12:19 - 00:45:15:13 and institutions that are influenced, constrain 00:45:15:13 - 00:45:17:21 or enable in their actions by structures. 00:45:18:11 - 00:45:20:11 Institutional bricolage, on the other hand, 00:45:20:11 - 00:45:22:21 looks beyond the existing formal institutions 00:45:23:04 - 00:45:25:17 and instead expands these shallow bracket to include 00:45:25:24 - 00:45:30:00 modern and traditional formal as well as informal institutions. 00:45:30:11 - 00:45:33:22 Taken together, my project will help develop realistic 00:45:33:22 - 00:45:35:13 fisheries management reforms 00:45:35:13 - 00:45:37:18 that can help mitigate climate impacts 00:45:37:18 - 00:45:40:04 within the Western Indian Ocean and beyond.
00:45:40:11 - 00:45:40:21 Thank you. 00:45:42:12 - 00:45:44:19 Thank you very much, Emmanuel. 00:45:44:19 - 00:45:48:08 And now it's the turn of the very last 00:45:48:09 - 00:45:51:00 one of the fellows that went pretty fast, didn't it? 00:45:51:01 - 00:45:52:11 We're welcoming 00:45:52:11 - 00:45:53:24 Nwamaka Okeke Ogbuafor 00:45:53:24 - 00:45:58:05 and she's going to talk about in many coastal areas, communities 00:45:58:05 - 00:46:02:15 are suffering from decreasing fish stocks due to climate change. 00:46:02:21 - 00:46:05:13 So now Nwamaka will tell us how to deal with it.
00:46:06:12 - 00:46:08:01 Nwamaka you're good to go. 00:46:08:01 - 00:46:09:00 Thank you. 00:46:09:00 - 00:46:12:03 Did you know that climate change is currently threatening 00:46:12:03 - 00:46:15:09 the livelihoods of over 200 million Africans 00:46:15:15 - 00:46:18:00 that depend on fish for survival? 00:46:18:14 - 00:46:22:15 200 million is significant because it's about a fifth 00:46:22:16 - 00:46:25:05 of the total population of Africa.
00:46:25:15 - 00:46:27:04 How does this happen? 00:46:27:04 - 00:46:29:20 The African continent is naturally warm. 00:46:30:04 - 00:46:34:08 But climate change makes it even warmer, including its waters. 00:46:34:08 - 00:46:36:15 Fish cannot survive in very warm waters, 00:46:36:15 - 00:46:39:06 and so they simply migrate away to cooler waters. 00:46:39:24 - 00:46:42:06 This impacts on the income of fishers 00:46:42:06 - 00:46:45:00 and then they are not able to take care of their household. 00:46:45:12 - 00:46:48:13 Children who used to normally have enough fish 00:46:48:14 - 00:46:52:11 no longer have access to fish which is a major supplier 00:46:52:14 - 00:46:55:19 of the micro and micronutrients they need to grow.
00:46:56:06 - 00:46:57:18 This explains the increase 00:46:57:18 - 00:47:00:23 in rates of malnutrition on the African continent 00:47:01:01 - 00:47:05:04 and it cuts across various or a range of demographic. 00:47:06:15 - 00:47:09:14 Old, young, women, the pregnant, 00:47:09:17 - 00:47:13:17 they don't have access to enough nutrients that they need. 00:47:13:17 - 00:47:15:03 But there is hope. 00:47:15:03 - 00:47:16:23 My project brings hope. 00:47:16:23 - 00:47:20:02 My project, which seeks to integrate aquaculture 00:47:20:09 - 00:47:24:08 and marine capture fisheries, will provide options to fishers.
00:47:24:13 - 00:47:27:18 So either grow fish on land or in the open sea, 00:47:27:24 - 00:47:32:04 or even on land, or combine fishing on land, and the open sea. 00:47:32:10 - 00:47:36:18 With this, fishers would have the option of selecting fish species 00:47:36:21 - 00:47:39:15 that can be resilient to very warm temperatures 00:47:39:21 - 00:47:42:09 of fish species that are nutrient hot. 00:47:42:17 - 00:47:45:10 To do this, I'd have to go towards three stages. 00:47:45:15 - 00:47:47:13 The first is global imput. 00:47:47:13 - 00:47:52:06 This entails detailed literature Search, and then practically 00:47:52:06 - 00:47:53:20 reaching out to researchers, 00:47:53:20 - 00:47:57:07 communities, fishermen, fish farmers across the world. 00:47:57:17 - 00:48:01:02 And I'm able to reach out to fishermen and fish farmers 00:48:01:02 - 00:48:04:13 across the world using online tools like Google Farm.
00:48:04:20 - 00:48:07:18 I seek to understand what sort of species 00:48:08:14 - 00:48:10:19 are resilient to very high temperature 00:48:11:22 - 00:48:13:07 in trying to integrate 00:48:13:07 - 00:48:17:03 aquaculture and marine culture and marine capture fisheries. 00:48:17:13 - 00:48:21:16 Are there potential obstacles that can come from culture? 00:48:21:16 - 00:48:27:02 Stage two, to lock up all the ideas collected in stage one into questionnaire 00:48:27:07 - 00:48:29:22 and interview forms and then administer them 00:48:29:22 - 00:48:31:13 in my case, community. 00:48:31:13 - 00:48:33:05 And then stage three, 00:48:33:05 - 00:48:36:24 I'd work with communities, including fishermen, women, 00:48:36:24 - 00:48:40:24 fishmongers, to analyze the data collected in stage two 00:48:41:03 - 00:48:44:12 and then brainstorm to come up with sets of actions 00:48:44:12 - 00:48:48:03 and strategies that can help us integrate these two sectors.
00:48:48:11 - 00:48:51:24 This set of actions and strategy is what I call the Marine 00:48:51:24 - 00:48:55:05 food security strategy, because Syria, 00:48:55:12 - 00:48:57:01 which is our test country, 00:48:57:01 - 00:48:59:12 is one of the poorest countries in our world. 00:48:59:21 - 00:49:04:16 This Marine food security strategy can be copied and adopted 00:49:04:17 - 00:49:07:17 in other poor countries with similar circumstance. 00:49:07:18 - 00:49:08:18 Thank you very much. 00:49:10:11 - 00:49:11:04 So I think we 00:49:11:04 - 00:49:11:14 can call 00:49:11:14 - 00:49:15:11 back all the amazing fellows on stage to congratulate them 00:49:15:11 - 00:49:26:20 and have a big, big round of applause to them. 00:49:28:12 - 00:49:31:11 Congrats to all the AXA fellow scientists 00:49:31:11 - 00:49:33:16 from different fields and different countries 00:49:33:16 - 00:49:36:03 that talked about their projects today.
00:49:36:03 - 00:49:38:12 It's really a big challenge, and they managed it 00:49:38:16 - 00:49:40:02 really, really well. 00:49:40:02 - 00:49:42:05 We're going to hear word from Marie Bogataj, 00:49:42:05 - 00:49:45:11 She's the director for AXA Research Fund and Foresight. 00:49:45:21 - 00:49:47:22 It's been a pleasure to talk to you, Marie. 00:49:48:00 - 00:49:50:09 Congratulations. 00:49:50:09 - 00:49:52:13 You know, I was sitting next to Roger, you know, 00:49:52:14 - 00:49:56:10 as we're looking at you, exposing the problems one by one. 00:49:56:21 - 00:49:59:10 15 of these huge issues, 00:49:59:21 - 00:50:02:13 you know, in the room, we're getting quite depressed.
00:50:03:01 - 00:50:06:03 And then and then you gave us hope. 00:50:06:21 - 00:50:09:08 And I think One of the last 00:50:09:08 - 00:50:11:10 presentations, said that word hope. 00:50:11:10 - 00:50:12:17 And I just wanted to say 00:50:12:17 - 00:50:16:02 huge thanks to you for everything you're doing right now.
00:50:17:10 - 00:50:18:22 That is what you represent 00:50:18:22 - 00:50:22:04 hope, especially in your generation of researchers. 00:50:22:19 - 00:50:24:19 It makes us really proud of the AXA research 00:50:24:19 - 00:50:26:19 fund to be doing what we're doing. 00:50:26:19 - 00:50:29:13 And maybe some of you still have a doubt about, you know, 00:50:29:22 - 00:50:32:19 why would an insurance company be doing this? 00:50:33:06 - 00:50:35:20 So as you know, where you look at risk, that's our that's our work. 00:50:35:20 - 00:50:37:04 That's our job.
00:50:37:04 - 00:50:40:19 And we believe at AXA that size is 00:50:41:03 - 00:50:45:05 the answer to better understanding and mitigating that risk. 00:50:45:18 - 00:50:48:12 And that's why this AXA Research Fund initiative 00:50:48:12 - 00:50:51:11 was launched 15 years ago and is still here today. 00:50:51:22 - 00:50:54:15 We're very, very proud to be to be supporting you today. 00:50:56:05 - 00:50:58:16 AXA also defined its purpose 00:50:59:04 - 00:51:02:10 three years ago now, and that is back to the problem 00:51:02:14 - 00:51:05:12 for human progress by protectin