KPIT STEM Dialogues | Dr. R A Mashelkar on Impact of Science and his personal Journey

KPIT STEM Dialogues | Dr. R A Mashelkar on Impact of Science and his personal Journey

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KPIT STEM dialogues, which is what we are launching today, is the fourth step in this regard. So here is the first edition of KPIT STEM Dialogues. And we are very happy that to launch this first edition, we have it as Dr. Mashelkar

as our first speaker in India. Dr. Mashelkar doesn't need much introduction, especially to the science students, but I think a formal introduction is in order because of the phenomenal work that he has done in the field of science and technology. Dr. R A Mashelkar is a world renowned scientist known for his extraordinarily transformative work in the field of scientific institutions. He has also been known for his penchant for innovation.

He's a Padma Vibhushan, as well as a Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri all the three very high awards that are given by the government of India. He has been the Director-General of CSIR and has done many areas of research in that he has been associated with a very large number of academic institutions being their Vice-Chancellor. He has received a record of 45 honorary doctorates from institutions all over the world. He is a jury member for the prestigious Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, which is considered as equivalent to the Nobel Prize in engineering.

He has been elected as a foreign associate for the US National Academy of Engineering. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. He's also a member of Australian Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the World Academy of Arts and Science, USA.

He is the only third Indian engineer to have been elected to the Fellow of the Royal Society since 1660, the seventh Indian scientist to have been elected as a foreign fellow of the US National Academy of Science and the seventh Indian to be elected as the foreign Associate of the American Academy of Arts and Science. Since 1780. He has been a member of the External Research Advisory Board of Microsoft, of VTT Finland, of Michelin and Advisory Board of Prime Minister's National Research Foundation for Singapore. Dr. Mashelkar's Connections with International Academic Education and Research Community are deep and wide across universities across the world. He was a visiting professor at Harvard and then Delaware at Technology University of Denmark, among other institutions.

He has been on the board of directors of several reputed companies, such as Reliance, Tata motors, Hindustan Unilever, Thermax, KPIT, Godrej etc.. He has been propagating a culture of innovation and balanced intellectual property rights regime for over three decades. It was through his sustained and visionary campaign that growing awareness of intellectual property rights has dawned on Indian academics, researchers and corporates. He has helped the government in multiple areas of their scientific and administrative problems.

Actually, there have been 16 Mashelkar committees to address different issues, which the country has faced over the years. In the Post liberalized India. Dr. Mashelkar has played a critical role in shaping India's

science and technology policies. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Council. The Prime Minister of India, set up by successive governments for a long period of 30 years. He was also a member of PMs National Innovation Council. He pioneered the concept of Gandhian engineering, getting more from less, for more. His paper on this subject, coauthored with S.K.

Prahlad, has been named among the top ten Must-Read Papers in Innovation. He co-authored a book with me titled Leapfrogging to Pole Vaulting, Creating the Magic of Radical yet Sustainable Innovation, which won actually the best Business Book of the Year award in the Tata Literature Festival Dr. Mashelkar has been contributing to the social causes all his life. He has chaired the Corporate Social Responsibility Committees of Reliance, Tata motors, Godrej Agrovet, etc..

Ladies and gentlemen, it's my pleasure to present to you now. DR. R. A. Mashelkar You have been the Director-General of CSIR for a long time.

You have also been on the board of directors of many companies, reputable companies across the globe, and you have led their science or innovation foundations. So you certainly have a very broad spectrum of the field of science that is emerging. But I would like to ask you, is that which are the four or five areas of scientific development which you think are going to be highly impactful over the next 25, 30 years, which we can consider as the lifespan for this of working of this generation? Which are those four or five areas which are going to impact India and the world over this period? And what should they do to get themselves ready for it? Thank you, Ravi.

First of all, I want to profusely thank you for two things. First, starting this STEM dialogues and secondly doing, me the honor of being the first to participate in this dialogue. Now, your question about new technologies that will sort of there are existing ones and they are rapidly emerging ones now among them. I will single out of you.

I think the first is going to be biology. But more importantly, new. You know, after Watson and Crick found out the structure of DNA, the world changed, as a matter of fact And therefore, we started talking about gene therapy and all these advances, etc..

But what a period of time. What has happened is that there have been some breakthroughs in new biology, like synthetic biology. Like, for example, new tools that have come up, like there is this tool called CRISPR Cas9. So if you look at human genome, it took us more than a decade and $3 billion to crack the genome, $3 billion. Today, we can do it for not just $300, hundred dollars, it's 3 billion to $100. So as a result of that, this tool is in everybody's sort of hand so as to say, it is affordable And then what happened is that previously we read the genome.

Now we can write the genome so as to say we can make correction. But it is like a scissor it can cut, paste and adjust So what it means is that it can repair genes, for example, and so on. The diseases like cystic fibrosis do not have to be there because they are there because of some malfunction. You can start correcting it. But at the same time, you will find that the new challenges that we have, these techniques can be used, for example, take climate change.

You will see the kind of variations that we are going to have in terms of high temperatures, very low temperatures, all sorts of adverse conditions. And the plants have to be grown agriculture, has to survive under these conditions. And therefore, CRISPR-Cas9, as a matter of fact, can help create plants which will be salt tolerant, drought tolerant, tolerant to all kind of stresses. And even the same thing in medical science, for example. I would say as per as the new biology is concerned, that close to 60% of the physical inputs can be created by new biology. You know, I mean, I don't have to tell you that because KPIT technologies is based on digital or technology.

And we have seen advances in this and we call them exponential technologies. Because they grow exponentially in terms of the speed in terms of reduction of cost, etc., etc.. Yes. So whether it is artificial intelligence, machine learning, cloud, edge computing or quantum computing for example, you will have digital twins, for example, or facial recognition. Iot, for example, you know, Internet of Things and a brain computer interface. So there are something like 25 technologies which fall under that one category. Like I said, in biology, there are sort of several.

Also, what will happen is that as you can see, we talked about 2G, then we were 3G, 4G in terms of power of network. Now people are talking about 6G. You know, you can understand if you are talking about one terabyte per second, what difference we are talking about And that will have sort of tremendous repercussions. So I think intelligence can lie somewhere up in the cloud and you can draw it in every fraction of a second.

And so I think this beautiful, absolute so that the power. Yeah. You know, and then of course, you have this Web 3.0, for example, Web 1.0 was decentralized. Web 2.0 become centralized and few companies benefited. Web 3.0 is finally it is going to be the hands of the people that the creators.

It will be the Internet of the people. Extraordinary change in the lives of everybody. And everybody yes. Basically, you know, Then people talk about augmented humanity where, every person can be technologically augmented in in terms of wearables.

For example, you may be wearing a smartwatch or whatever and other sort of. So these technologies and, you will have ingestibles, for example, which can sort of tell you what's happening the path and all that. So I would say the first is new biology. Second is sort of digital technologies in variety of forms. They're just growing, actually.

And the third, as is generally term, I would say clean energy technologies, because we know the dangers of climate change and what danger lies ahead if we don't sort of keep the rise to 1.5 degrees centigrade, etc.. All those targets are known and therefore there will have to be a variety of technologies. I would call into decarbonization in some sense, not only just a less carbon, but carbon less, if we like to put that will with ultimate and even actually carbon negative, you can do it because the amount of damage that we have done to the environment over the last century and a half is just enormous. And then, of course, there are lots of technologies coming in from whether it is a production of new energy, and we already know about solar photovoltaic or wind and others.

But also a new energy forms. Like, for example, we talk about green hydrogen, because normally hydrogen is grey hydrogen. You know, that we get by reforming and so on, so forth.

But then blue hydrogen is one where you can actually store the carbon dioxide that gets generated simultaneously But green hydrogen is the best because, see, for example, if you get solar electricity and that is used to decompose water in an electrolyzer. basically split water And then that is the best way of doing it. So I think there are technologies that are emerging to create that and there is a lot of scope for improvements and achieving new targets. For example, in Electrolyzers, can we increase the electrolyzer efficiency dramatically? But that will bring the cost down and so on.

And then there are alternative ways we will have to think because for example, when you see water splitting, one tonne of green hydrogen will require 10 tons of water, for example. And if we are talking about millions of tonnes of water where will that water come from because we require it for agriculture, we require for human consumption, we required for industry and so on. So can we look at that vast sea and say whether seawater electrolysis can directly give you the best thing will be the sun shining. And if you have a Photocatalysis which actually decomposes there is nothing like it. And that to a room temperature. Right. You you don't have now the challenge there that the current efficiencies are only 1%.

Can we take them to 10% 15% that requires new science again, the kind of thing that we have to do when we have to boat. Photovoltaics changing the efficiency of photovoltaic. over the last two three decades, you know, just see I actually sit on the Queen Elizabeth prize of engineering. Which is kind of a Nobel Prize in engineering.

And this year it was given to Martin Green. Okay. From New South Wales. And what did he do? We were stuck at around 14% efficiency. He took it to 28, 29%.

How did he do that? By creating a new breakthrough, which is called PERC Technologies. All right. Now in that what you are doing is that when you hit a photon and create a excited electron basically they used to recompile. Yes, it is technology. He made sure that they don't recompile so therefore technology like that. So I think the point I'm trying to make, particularly with the young students, is I've just picked up three.

I can pick up more, but these are kind of technologies which are important for not only human I mean productivity or growth, but human survival. I would put it this way. say, each of these there are challenges in physics, in chemistry, in biology, in mathematics and computer science, all sorts of sciences. So it is going to be the science, it is going to be the STEM, which is going to create our new world. I wanted to ask you Your life has been.. truly an extraordinary journey From your childhood where you studied under street light to a level that hardly .001% of the scientist can ever hope to achieve

you have travelled that journey over this period of time and its a fairy tale journey, extraordinary journey What are the lessons you draw from it and what is it that you would like to tell our audience about that journey? Yes, thank you. You're right. I have studied under street lights. I was born in a very poor family.

My father died when I was six. I was born in a village called Marcel. That's how I am Mashelkar And my mother was illiterate. Brought me to Mumbai in search of a job.

I remember I walked barefoot until I was 12, studied under street light as you said in a municipal school in Marathi medium, by the way, and didn't make a difference. I want to specially give this message to all those who are studying in Marathi, medium in Municipal schools doesn't make a difference. But because we are talking about science, I must narrate a little story about how I got into science. That would be very interesting. Yes. See, what happened was, as I said, I was in municipal school. I passed 7th standard with 88% marks and I was seeking admission.

But what I saw was that the fees, including the uniforms and books and everything, including ₹21, and my mother didn't have ₹21 So I remember borrowing that money from a house maid in choupaty, it was her saving she gave it, and by the time it was too late and I missed getting admission in top schools like Wilson Aryan and so on and so forth. So I went into a poor school which meant for poor students coming from those communities, but that was school Ravi had rich teachers and one of them was my science teacher. And in life, you know, you always have warm moments. he gave me the warm moments. I will tell you, he belived actually, in not just chalk and talk, but do you wanted us to see and learn, for example, soap making you didn't go to the board and write the equations, but he took us to a factory by tram those days. How exciting it was Hindustan Yeah Hindustan Lever. and showed us how to make the

soap. Right from the time you take the ingredients and finally packaging, it was fascinating. You know, I was just in ninth standard and like that Wimco factory how to make match boxes and so what do you did one day was you took us out into the sun.

He had a convex lens in his hand and wanted to show us how to find a focal length. So he had the convex lense moved it up and down. And when the brightest spot was there the paper burnt when the paper burnt, he turned to me for some reason and he said, like this If you focus, you can achieve anything.

Ravi that did two things for me the first is, I said My God, science is so powerful. I must become a scientist you see. Yeah. And secondly, philosophy of life. You focus and you can achieve sort of everything, particularly for the young generation now I want to emphasize Because we are either doing this or this. you need to concentrate Social media keeps us too busy. Yeah.

Really need to defocus from that Right? Yes. Yeah. No answering your questions. What I will do that I will focus on the research that I've done and what I have learned sort of out of it. I think the first thing I want to say, particularly India, is still a poor country. 70% of it lives in villages. 17% lives in slums.

So we are still not there. That's all right. So India is one and Bharath is another one. And we talk about India 75. We are to talk about Bharath at 75 continuously remain poor So therefore, when we think that because we are poor, we can't compete, we are wrong.

It is not the power of budget that matters is the power of ideas. And still we could do science, which was ahead of the multinationals. I mean, I remember when I took over as director of National Chemical Laboratory first day, First June in 1989, I said national chemical will become international chemical laboratories because those were days when we were reverse engineering we are copying anything that happened in the rest of the world. We are copying because all patent laws allowed it. So we had become a copying country. There's no incentive to sort of in 91 we liberalized and opened up and then competition came in and whenever we did anything that was ahead of the world, the industry would say, have they done it? has US done it, Europe done it So I said, What am I selling knowledge and what is my sort of market? The whole world? And it looked audacious at the time because this laboratory, National Chemical Laboratory which had no US patents in 39 years, I said, we will, license our US patents to the leaders in the world and somebody came in when I gave that speech.

Sir do you realize that General Electric R&D budget two and half times India's R&D budget I said, no it is not the power of budget. Since you talk about General Electric will take on And then some story because of which I had some breakthrough idea of solid-state Polycondensation of engineering plastic that they had polycarbonate They were leaders in that they had never done it and we did it. We patented it basically, and we licensed three patents for close to a million dollars in 1993, showing for the first time that it is the power of ideas that matters not the power of budget So then the first thing, the second is risk taking, basically taking adventurous ideas because bulk of the time we follow somebody has, done something. I've done my post-doc at, lets say the Max Planck. I come and do something incrementally.

But in science risk taking is very important audacious ideas etc... So I did a no of experiments. For example, in National Chemical Laboratory, I created a kite flying fund, kite flying means idea one in 100. So let your imagination be wild think of what is impossible and try to make it possible, etc.

failure is something that we worry about in India, but I describe FAIL as first attempt in learning. All right, so risk taking is very important. The other thing is borderlessness because we see chemistry, biology etc, etc The new word is going to be borderless.

In fact, I have a lecture called P.V. Danckwerts Memorial Lecture on borderlessness and how the different borders between science, different sciences are sort of disappearing between engineering and science are basically to see a lot of my work is on borderlessness. For example, I was a visiting professor at Harvard and we had multidisciplinary sort of interaction. For example, you know, when you take a cancer drug, you don't know how it is working because then every month you take some indirect measurement and find no what a magic it will be, as the drug is working, you can come to know We have a breakthrough paper in National Academy of Sciences.

But you know, seven different disciplines came together. No, I think interesting things happen at the intersection of different sciences. That is very extraordinary.

Insights can come. And, and I remember when I gave that lecture in London, my mentor, Ashok Ganguly, who was, Unilever's research director, came because he couldn't attend the lecture and he said, Can you describe in one sentence what is the lecturer are going to give he challenged, he always challenges And I said, Learning to dare and daring to learn. Because when you look at different disciplines, basically you know daring to learn from those. And then create idea. So that is one more lesson.

The other one, which is very important, is particularly for India, is that we have a lot of poor people and therefore making low technology work for the poor is very easy. Making high technology work for the rich is very easy. How do you make high technology work for the poor? Yes. So inclusion is very important.

So can you do the science that helps the poor? As a matter of fact So I think in brief I would say that power of ideas, not budget, no difference between scientific and industrial research science is an application inclusion, most important risk taking, most important and thinking borderless. I would say my own science is this five lessons So, Dr. Mashelkar. I have been very closely interacting with you and seeing you for many years, like you know, and I find it fascinating that at the age of 80 you are so active and I'm looking at you and seeing what you do is inspiring. What I would like to hear from you.

What does a day in the life of Dr. Mashelkar look like, or what does a week in the life of Dr. Mashelkar look like? How do you how do you how do you utilize your time? What what takes you? What takes chunks of your hours? Yes. Yeah. You know, it's very interesting since you talked about a week, you just talk about the last week and I'll give you an account in two or 3 minutes about what I did last Sunday to this Sunday. Basically, I was in Sangli to give these very important awards, you know, karmaveer Bhaurao Patil sort of awards as you know, he was a great individual who brought educational transformation and I addressed some thousand plus students and so on and so forth.

So I had to tell them, that look, you don't have control on where you are born to whom you are born, on what day you are born to which parents your are born But your destiny is in your hands and you can be another Mashelkar and Mashelkar plus So I took them through my journey and I also told them about India at 75 and Bharath at 75 And I said, we must dream of not just India at 100, but Bharath at 100 basically. And then I give them sort of a idea of what Bharath at 100 of my dream is concerned so like santulith Bharath, susamskruth Bharath, Samrudh Bharath sushashith Bharath, surakshith Bharath and swanandi Bharath internal as well as that was my talk the following day You know, I've been Sir Louis Matheson visiting professor at Monash University. Which is one of the most reputed in Australia. And I spent every April there giving some lectures. So this idea of IIT Bombay Monash research academy came up basically and I have been its chairman almost from its inception, excepting for the first three or four years.

And we have just given the 200th Phd and that's a very special academy. So this is the advisory council. I've been the chairman of that.

So the following day I did that, yes, the following day, you know, I'm doing a book called Exprovement Exprovement is Exponential Improvement and Exponential Improvement by converging the parallels. The seemingly unconnectables you have breakthrough is like this you know henry ford started manufacturing of cars, but they were very expensive. Then one day he went to a slaughterhouse and found how the animals, after being cut, you know, the meat packaging was being done in an assembly line approach. So he said if that can work here why cant And he started in auto manufacturing. The assembly line. And after that, the cost up so much and that is how That's true.

Now tell me, what is the similarity between slaughterhouse and car manufacturing? Yes, he connected those dots So the entire book describes how breakthroughs in science, breakthroughs in technology have come. so I was doing some work on that final finishing stages, penguin is going to publish it the following day. You know, there is this Joe institute that has come up Mukesh Ambani is bringing up this again as a kind of a next practice. And we all started courses on that on digital media, marketing, communications, artificial intelligence, data sciences etc.. etc... And we wanted to select the chairman of the computer science.

So I spent time interviewing him the following day. You know, for innovation, we have this public procurement, which is a big bottleneck in India. So I'm writing a paper with a Dr. Ajay Shah who wrote that book. with Vijay Kelkar he is master of policies in the morning I spent there and evening My alma mater.

I'm very proud to say that one of the greatest honors in engineering is election to U.S. National Academy of Engineering. so far there have been 2000 plus NA fellows out of which, 1% comes from India but out of which 25% come from one institution. and that is of my Alma Mater So, so six of us are there.

So I chaired that sort of celebration, it was a proud momement The following day I flew to Nagpur 4.30, getting up in the morning and taking the early flight to Nagpur because there are these awards that have been created and one of them was in my name basically. So I attended that sort of function for a reason. And then yesterday I was with you KPIT well, you know, we had a our Sparkle program. And we know honored research, innovation.

Saw young entrepreneurs. So these are my eight days basically. Now here you can see my role as, academician as involved in the industry. So some or the other I have learned to sort of optimize Time. I will put it this way That's interesting. You know in this

life of really unique achievements, what do you see as your dearest achievements as well as your moments of despair. Oh yeah. Excellent question. Let me come to the happy part first. See what happens in science.

The highest award you can get the Nobel Prize. After that, that is called what is called is FRS Fellowship of Royal Society and the US National Academy of Science. I've been fellow of both but FRS is is something very special because what happens is that you sign the same book that Newton has signed and you do it in the same way that he did, the by the way.

In fact, there is a Ink pod Yeah, then, you know, because you know we are all ball pen guys, you know, so they make you actually practice and his signature on the page 9 by the way and everybody looks at it. Because every fellow is given his wish. Yes. What do you want to see.

So it's laminated The British have a wonderful way of, you know, kind of keeping their traditions. Absolutely. Absolutely. No, The interesting part is that I'm an engineering scientist. You asked in 360 years how many engineering scientists have got this honor? of signing in the same book. Only three. And one of them is my guru Prof M M Sharma another one is Roddam Narasimha he is no more. And third is me So only two living scientists are there today.

And I'm both happy as well as sad I'm the only Maharashtrian to have signed in the book so far. I'm happy because that is unique but sad because there should be 10 another Mashelkar But anyway, this is separate. So that was 1998. But that 1998 was also special year because within a month I got the JRD Tata Corporate Excellence Award.

Yes. I'm not a corporate. Yeah, but the corporate decided that I should get that award. On that day. three technology events happened, including the Pokhran too, remember? And in the morning there was an achievement by DRDO in terms of Missile.

So I mentioned to Murli Manohar Joshi who was the minister of that. We should of sort of call it a Technology Day just as we have C V Raman Nobel Prize 28th February Science Day and one thing led to the other and finally Atal Ji declared it as a Technology Day What a 1998 year whether it is my personal Science recognition by industry protecting India's traditional knowledge Leadership directors coming together here and creating Technology Day That was the best year, isn't it? Extraordinary. Extraordinary. The worst years number of moments like that. But I'll put it this way. You know, what happened is that somebody joked or the other day they said there is a saying in government when in difficulty form a Mashelkar Committee So there have been 16 Mashelkar committees.

Yeah. Like, you know, the students will recognize my first Mashelkar Committee was regional Indian colleges converted into National Institute of Technology and Ravi I'm really proud when we did that. I had written that if all the changes are made, some of the RECs will become NITs will surpass the IITs and that's happening now among the top ten, as you know there are So but that has its downside also because when you give the committee reports, you please some and you don't please some.

You know, you talked about Bharath at hundred years of Bharath India and that so that's roughly 25 years from now or 25 years from now. Our audience here, I would think who are there in the mid 25 mid-twenties, they would be in their fifties and fifties. I would think that they would be in the height of their careers. They would have achieved a lot by that time.

So what I would like to ask you is that how do you see the world and especially the world of science 25 years from now? And what do you think they should do to make them successful in that world? Yeah, that's an excellent question. I think first and foremost, what does happen is that we are also living in an exponential world today. Yes, the changes are exponential. What we have today, we could not have predicted even five years ago.

take CHAT GPT Who knew about it. Yeah, we knew about it. Yeah. And they created a record by getting a million customers in five days. Yes. 100 million customers. The fastest ever. so as to say, you know, so therefore the changes are so rapid it's very difficult to predict.

But there are some fundamentals which to remain. I think the fundamentals will be the 3Ds to this being digitalization, democratization through decentralization. And finally, decarbonization, these three and under these there will be various technologies. Okay.

Hopefully all the effort that we are doing today on clean energy and climate. Would result in to sort of So I think as far as the new word is concerned, it will be dominated by these 3Ds There's no doubt about that. All right. And democratization also is an obvious sort of process democracy. So wealth for the.

As we know right now, because again, students are listening. Let me say this, that there is a what is I mean, there is a startup movement. Okay. And very quickly, as you know, exponential. Yes, we have in 2016, just 450 startups, Such a such a steep. not only that until 2016. we just had one unicorn one unicorn for everybody's information is Billion dollar market cap.

Yes. Okay. Yes. In 2021 we have one unicorn not per year, but per week Almost 44, 52 but the good news for all of you is that when i did an analysis I found 50% of that actually comes from not IITs and IIMs but from tier three cities to tier 2 cities that I think is the potential that all the youngsters can really display or show. Yes, absolutely. So technoprenuership Technology, entrepreneurship, you don't have to seek jobs, you can create jobs. And so on.

And you can just imagine poor farmers son, 27, 28 having a market cap of a billion dollars, coming from Shivapur or a Khed or Amaravati such a village. Yes. So this process, digital transformation. See, I distinguish between digitalization, digital transformation. Yes.

Because digitalization doing some part here. there is a total transformation of the system that is taking place. I think I can see that in sort of 30 years time that is basically happening. I think most important point I want to make is that if you look at the society, the first society was a hunting society, then came agriculture, then industrial, then came information society.

So society 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 society 5.0 will be in existence at that point in time. And my only hope is that then we are not just talking about augmented humanity, but augmented humanism. So as to say creating that sort of balance. And therefore it is going to be a very interesting interplay with the dominance of technology. Like, you know, people talk about Metaverse.

I gave a talk as something about the subject from the on Metaverse or metworse WORSE Oh, don't forget other part of it. Yes. Yes. Because when you have when you are creating an identity that is not you, if you really start believing in that, just live that. That's true. What will happen to the sort of.

So customized identity has its own interesting part that you can forget about it and go So I think that society be so advanced that particular balance would be important. Yeah. The last point as I said with a certain thing that will be permanent, I like to end by giving what I learned in my 80 years and I learned more by failing rather than by succeeding.

I would say one of those 5 lessons the first aspirations are your possibilities. The second part is purpose, perseverance and passion. The third part, like I said, you keep on knocking on the doors and they don't open.

Create your own doors. The next one is that, you know, if someone says it cannot be done, look at it as his problem, not your problem. That's true. That's true. That is sort of the point. And the last one is the following that there is no limit to human achievement. They no limit to human endurance.

They no limit to human imagination, except the limit you put on yourself. No matter what we achieve in life, you have to say my best is yet to come. So my suggestion will be, I don't know the age of the audience, but let's say 15 year old, you will see every day in the morning when you get up. My best is yet to come and it will come today and do that. If you are 25.

35, 45, 85. And do it till the last year. So every day, in the morning you say my best is yet to come not only for me but for the society and nation and 1 billion plus people do in India. Where will India be? Right up there These are my 5 Mashelkar Mantras very inspiring, very inspiring Thank you so much. It has been a pleasure. And I'm sure our audience will really learn a lot from it. They will find it inspiring, as they always do, and highly educated.

Thank you very much. What a wonderful start to our STEM dialogues. Thank you. Thank you. Thank you.

2023-06-28 02:50

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