Humanity: Firstborn Space Civilization
We sometimes consider that life might be so rare that we have the whole galaxy of trillions of worlds all to ourselves, and yet the cosmos is made of billions and billions of galaxies, so aliens would surely still be common on the grander scale. But what if humanity is truly alone in the Universe? From the earliest days of this show we’ve talked about humanity’s future in a way that tended to assume we would have the galaxy to ourselves, and we have often discussed a future in which aliens are a rarity and maybe so rare we might claim this whole galaxy and built telescopes fueled by entire stars before we even spotted the signs of a distant civilization a billion light years away. This is a concept that, like colonizing the Moon or Mars, is so critical to the show’s discussions that it probably needs updated, but beyond that, it’s a giant topic no single episode can ever cover with lots of implications.
Indeed, I never have covered the case where humanity is genuinely the first civilization in the Universe, period, not just our local sector. That’s a very different case than aliens just being rare, in terms of how a civilization is going to act and view things if it gets out on the galactic scene and just never sees anyone else. So I thought today we would explore the reasoning for us being ultra-rare or even unique, along with how it might impact the worldview, or galaxy view, of our civilization. It can seem like that when I talk about having the whole galaxy to ourselves, nearly a trillion stars almost all of which have multiple planets we could terraform and call home and asteroids we could forge into uncountable space habitats. And yet for every star in this galaxy there’s another galaxy far off.
If the Galaxy was compared to Earth, then our solar system and all its worlds and resources, even out to the Oort Cloud, would be a spot of ground the size of a house. Scale that up so that the Observable Universe being Earth, and all the galaxy would be that house, and our world a lone speck of dust. Indeed it's quite possible the true Universe would be an entire scale higher, or even infinite, we can only see those bits of it close enough for their light to reach us. Even then, as our Observable Universe expands, most of the galaxies we see now are already far further away, and no signal sent today by us to them, or vice-versa, would ever be received. While modern physics tells us nothing in this Universe can move faster than light, the Universe itself is an exception, and may do so. It is simply being stretched wider, things inside can be pulled apart faster than light, but things trying to travel between each other, be it ships or signals, cannot move internally faster than that, and thus most of the Universe, even the Observable Universe, is beyond any chance of ever being reached even by signal.
There’s space enough for hundreds of empires to arise right now and never know each other existed as the universe expanded apart faster than their birth cries could reach other, let alone their colony shops. It's an irony that the Observable Universe grows in size every instant, but the number of things in it we can see shrinks, and even smaller those parts we can still reach. Almost 14 billion years after the Big Bang, most of what we can see now will be forever out of the reach of even near-light speed ships, and were we to have arisen another 14 billion years later, only the few dozen neighboring galaxies out of all those billions would ever be ours, assuming no one arose sooner and claimed them for themselves. At some point in the Universe the first interstellar colony spacecraft was invented, or will be invented.. At some point the first truly massive array able to send a message across billions of light years was made or will be made.
The longer that takes, the smaller the number of worlds, stars, and galaxies such ships or signals might reach. Today we will ask if we are the first, period, as opposed to simply the first in this region of the Universe, yet still far down on the list of first civilizations, several hundred or even thousand down the line, from that first interstellar empire, as contemplated in the Grabby Aliens Scenario, see that episode for details. The default perspective of this show is that others have arisen and sent out those ships and signals, but the ships move slower than the signals and no such signal has been received.
If a civilization a billion light years away arose 999 million years ago, their signal is still heading our way. Indeed it’s not just a million years out still, as we would expect, because the Universe expands at about 7% of the speed of light for every billion light years, meaning if you launched a ship from here or there at 7% of light speed it’s never going to arrive. The furthest you could travel, even with a ship moving at 99.9% of light speed is 13.8
billion years, non-coincidentally almost the same as the age of the Universe, and that’s the furthest you could send a signal. This isn’t how far away the furthest galaxies we can see are, as the light we see from the left to reach us back when we were all closer together, hence we can see galaxies 35 billion light years away, the current record, because that’s how far away they are now, not 13.5 billion years ago when the light we see left them, nor of course do they look much like they did back then. Incidentally you will typically hear distances to those furthest objects given as 13-billion-something, and that’s because that’s the age of the light as it reaches us and its redshift, and we usually care about the age more than the modern and unreachable distance, which is known as its proper distance. If you know somethings proper distance, in billions of light years, then you can tell what speed we need a ship to be able to travel to ever reach it by multiplying the billion of light years by 0.07.
If your maximum ship speed is 70% of light speed, you can reach an object with a proper distance of 10 billion light years from us, and it will take us a lot longer than 10 billion years to arrive, and this is still only a small corner of the Universe, less than 1%. This is why I usually don’t care much about the question of if we’re the only civilization to arise in our local supercluster around a billion light years across or the whole Observable Universe which has around 10 million superclusters. Because it's not likely you’d have civilization that originated that far apart bumping into each other and ever interacting, and even if there ships moved at 99% of light speed, you still have millions of years of advance warning that there ships and colony expansion wave is going to arrive compared to their various signals and light-speed fingerprints. You will sometimes hear folks say no alien signal could be heard even a hundred light years away, let alone a billion, but this is simply wrong, and speaks to an assumption they send radio signals the way we do on this planet, intended for planetary consumption.
That’s like saying we can’t hear or speak to people on a distant mountaintop, by normal speech, and thus can’t make ourselves known, seen, or heard. But you can build a drum, for instance, and it won’t relay human speech but no one will mistake it for noise. Or a fire whose light you flicker or move a mirror in, and no one will mistake that for something natural either. We do have radio telescopes and use them to look at distant stars and galaxies, we look at pulsar stars which oscillate and pulse in the radio range and can be seen galaxies away too. So it's not that we expect to hear aliens in distant galaxies by their casual terrestrial radio shows, especially as they probably go digital as podcasts have before long, but instead by their immense beacons or the waste heat of their whole civilization. You can build enormous space telescopes that could pick up very faint signals too.
Ones that could pick up normal radio signals across a whole galaxy, albeit probably with a lot of noise, but then with enough receivers, a wide enough spread between them, possibly light years, and enough computing power, that matter can be handled too. Currently the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI, can legitimately say we don’t know that there are any interstellar empires, that practical space colonization might be rare, and with it massive beacons and massive telescope arrays and a super abundance of energy for powering inefficient but loud transmitters. So it might be that you only have a home world and maybe the alien equivalent of our Moon and Mars on which those aliens ever colonized, maybe Dyson Swarms weren’t possible either, too fragile to exist during internal conflicts as we’ll discuss this weekend, in our Planetary Civil Wars episode Maybe the nearest alien world is technological, about the same as ours, even if older, and just a thousand light years away. In such a case we couldn’t hear them now or they us. And there could be millions of such civilizations in our galaxy and maybe a trillion in the supercluster and more like a quintillion in the Universe.
All fairly isolated places who chat over millennia, where their nearest neighbor sent them a message in Julius Caesar’s time and they got it when William the Conqueror landed in Kent and today we’re getting their reply to Caesar from William arriving and now to the Secretary General of the UN, whose follow up message will arrive in the hands of Kang the Conqueror in the 30th century. And so nobody much bothers with mega-beacons. And we talked about that option more last week in our episode on post-SETI operations. But picking up there, if a century or two from now we have a colony ship arriving around Alpha Centauri and a hundred space habitats built in orbit of Earth or in the asteroid Belt and settlements on the Moon and Mars and Venus and Europa and Titan, well that starts really pushing back on the idea that there are only isolated homeworlds, and them short lived before nuking themselves into oblivion.
And if in the year 3000 we have a vast space array in our Oort Cloud and others at our thousands of interstellar colonies inside a light century of here, then the idea that the aliens are hiding from us or can’t colonize or that we just can’t hear them gets real dubious. If and until that day comes where we have interstellar colonies sending out their own colony ships and space arrays and beacons big enough they could pick each other up at galactic distances, or their alien versions in those galaxies, then we can’t simply assume intelligent life colonizing the galaxy is rare because such life is rare. Prior to that we could say it's decently common but tends to end in nuclear apocalypses or AI run amok then shutting down or failed colonies that just never get going.
If that scenario I just laid out happens though, then in the year 3000, the Fermi Paradox is probably going to be considered pretty solved. Mind you it might have gotten solved earlier by aliens arriving or us getting a signal, but we’re talking about a scenario where the status quo of silence has remained but humanity has spilled out to neighboring stars and successfully and in the beginnings of a cascade or snowball to the galaxy at large. And has done so with ever-bigger astronomical gear able to make Hubble or Kepler or Webb look like dinky little toys and still not seen a single K1, K2, or K3 civ.
Now if we do see a K3 civ out there, a big sprawling galaxy wide heat signature around some distant galaxy, then spotting it and a few other basically confirms the Grabby Aliens Scenario and lets us calculate about how frequently life emerged to intelligence and how that increased over time and how much of the Universe is essentially ours to garden, which would generally be counting not planets and stars but galaxies or superclusters. And it’s the year 3000 and we still haven’t seen even that. What’s the new dynamic? Well even in a Grabby aliens scenario of just a few thousands intergalactic empires, not billions of galactic ones or untold quadrillions of interstellar empires, someone has the be civilization 1 and it could be us as easily as anyone else, especially in a sample size of thousands not quadrillions. You’re also hardly guaranteed to be #1 unless you’ve already been expanding for billions of years and still never heard anyone else, since we could have just 1 alien home world per supercluster, still have 10 million supercluster-sized empires in the Observable Universe, and still not have seen even the nearest one if nobody really started popping up till a couple billions years ago and less often then than now, and by minimal coincidence the nearest dozen were all only a billion years old or less. Incidentally these are not really empires, it's more like their homeworld was that first amoeba in the ocean and by the time the ocean – or supercluster of galaxies – was all colonized, those amoeba aren’t even vaguely uniform in species let alone in unified leadership and goals. Which is why it's hard to assume any unified policy like being silent or leaving primitive worlds alone, could be in place.
Its like assuming because you and I and a bee hive and an oak tree and a bear all share common ancestry from that amoeba, that we would all have some treaty we all agreed to and followed about leaving new bacteria alone. Which restates our normal assumptions about the Fermi Paradox and Galactic Empires and how that’s not likely to be a proper term anyone ever gets to use. But that’s still far ahead, it’s the year 3000 and we aren’t seeing anything like that and our knowledge of physics hasn’t been upended, so nobody has found some awesome portal to new Universes we can colonize or harness for power or flee to in order to escape entropy. Just a big old boring Universe we’re colonizing and making interesting.
What’s the state of the Fermi Paradox now? It also matters if we have found life on other worlds and what that looks like. Was it simple algae, was it complex ecologies with critters but dumb, was it even worlds with intelligent life but just nothing technological? Let’s consider these four cases then – a universe where we have found not one single speck of life anywhere, even microbes. One in which it was common enough but nothing really complex, one in which it was complex, occasionally, but not smart, and one where it wasn’t technological but plenty of dolphins and chimps and maybe even cavemen were around, maybe even with fire, after all we apparently had fire for a million years before we made ceramics or metals with it. One note before we jump into those. We’ll be talking here about how humanity might react to perceived uniqueness as opposed to simple rarity, but in terms of rarity, finding out that humans are 1 in thousand, in the sense of 1 in 1000 star systems spawns something like us, or 1 in a million or 1 in billion or even 1 in a billion-billion, still needs to be viewed relatively.
Your brain is what matters here and weighs a couple kilograms and the various atoms making it up having only been doing that job for some decades. There’s maybe a hundred billion humans who have ever lived and only for a few trillion combined years of lifetime. That’s maybe 10 trillion kilogram-years of matter in brain format, and a few dozen times that if we wanted to include the whole human mass. Earth is just a few millionths of the mass of this solar system which is billions of years old, and would have something like a couple billion-trillion times as much matter dwelling in other formats over the eons, and if you look at atoms in our solar system, at any given moment over its history, there’s only a 1 in 10^27 chance, a trillion-quadrillion, that an atom happened to be part of a human brain at that time.
So we’re already dealing with a staggeringly huge number and staggeringly improbable setup before ever we leave this planet or star. We estimate there’s something like a couple hundred billion-trillion stars in the Observable Universe, and from the immensity of that number we think our uniqueness must freak chance or a sign things aren’t natural, and both might be true but we mustn’t be intimidated by that number, because it's already tiny compared to the odds already on display in the one place in the Universe we can examine in detail and confidently declare lacks any other civilizations… our own planet. And even if we did find some morlocks or dolphin-cities it wouldn’t really shift those numbers much. Indeed even when you throw in all the biomass this planets has and all the eons its had it, we still find that an atom on this planet spending its time as part of lifeform, even an amoeba, is worse than lottery odds, and its chance of even being on this planet as opposed to the other bodies in this solar system is similarly rare. And for our first case looking beyond our world, we will assume we not only have no other civilizations but no life at all.
It wouldn’t seem likely that without any other examples of life the Fermi Paradox would seem solved, but my hunch is it’s unlikely to be considered a big issue by that civilization anymore. What two or three camps of the Fermi Paradox dominate things at that point? You should still have Zoo Hypothesis and Simulation as an option, that reality was fake or a sublayer, and we will include the specifically theological options of us being the one and only creation of a higher power here too, be it smart aliens or supercomputers or Creator God. You may fill in the blank according to your personal preferences here, though there’s obviously a vast difference in outlook between superhuman but finite aliens or precursors and programmers and infinite creator gods, which come in a wide variety of outlooks too. Nonetheless, I would expect this to be the dominant view in Case 1, albeit it might be subdivided into a hundred different camps much as it is now, or a hundred thousand.
It's total speculation but my hunch is that the idea of a natural world in which we evolved by random chance is probably viewed with as much skepticism in this setting as it would have been a few hundreds years ago. Most folks currently alive, and by overwhelming numbers, tend to assume that however old this world and Universe is, life on it or in it is not entirely natural, and so it would seem easy enough for that viewpoint to stay a majority and even regain ground if we’re out exploring and settling the Universe, and all we find is endless dead worlds where life never emerged. We could call this the Status Quo scenario, given that it's essentially the world we’ve lived in for a long time and on the same data, no strong evidence of life elsewhere. Though as I noted a few minutes ago, our existing state as humans is already super-improbable, long before we even add other planets, stars, and galaxies in.
Going from 1 in 10^27, the odds of an atom in this solar system being part of a brain at any given moment in this solar system’s existence, to 1 in 10^50, the odds of any given atom in the Universe being in a human brain since the Big Bang, is not a tiny change in anyway, but I think it's easier to hear those odds and not simply assume there’s something instantly paradoxical about an apparently lifeless universe beyond this world, endless empty planets, all dead and never home to life till we arrive at them. Ironically the opposite direction, a Universe where we found nothing but dead worlds but where life had emerged a lot, and died off, from calamity natural or artificial, would strike as me as one favoring either nihilism or the more Lovecraftian view of reality being ancient and immense and being populated by ancient and immense aliens, and their worshippers and cattle. It’s a Universe where you know the answer to the Fermi Paradox and you really wish you didn’t, because life would be much more pleasant if you didn’t know for sure it was doomed.
See our episode Gods & Monsters for more on that. Back to the first case, in a Universe where everything is just unliving until we arrive, I tend to feel humanity would view it as a bit of a Manifest Destiny to go forth and plant gardens across the galaxy and beyond. I think it would be a pretty big deal a million years down the road when we settled the whole galaxy and folks were stretching out with intergalactic arks to claim more, and if we still hadn’t heard from aliens by then, even just to see their fingerprints on distant galaxies, I think it would be pretty popular to assume an unnatural origin and that if anyone else existed, it was far enough away we could all expand indefinitely without crashing into each other in any way anyone back here would ever need to care about. The leading edge of our colonies bumping into some other grabby alien civilization a billion light years away at the hazy edge of the cosmological event horizon at that point is not the source of a future invasion. That’s all those divergent cousins nearby you, who are potential aliens and threats, and the real aliens are just a curiosity that you probably figure were planted by the Creator/Simulator/whichever to help make sure the whole Universe was gardened by someone. Or some other usage motivation, I just find terraforming worlds a nice gardening analogy and a poetic purpose.
In a no-FTL Universe, there’s never going to be any useful exchange with them anyway, these other grabby aliens, and it would seem likely they had developed the same attitude. We might hate them or vice-versa for taking away our uniqueness but that’s not really logically sound, if they exist we never had it and pointing at your creator and complaining you only got a few millions galaxies to call your own rather than a trillion is probably not going to be viewed a logically or theologically sound and kind of childish, not that that alone is likely to stop many folks from doing it. All at the same time there’s nothing about this environment that just proves we are unnatural, and it all takes place in the backdrop of many new worlds being founded, so this doesn’t imply atheists or agnostics have ceased to exist or even gotten less numerous, or any sort of unified religion, just a species that looked around at a huge universe and saw nobody else, and got an ego-boost out of it, justified or not.
I think if we are contemplating the case of encountering lots of life but nothing complex that its basically the same situation, only maybe worse, and that would tend to be true for the others cases too. We tend to think of ourselves as something special and unique as a species to begin with, so finding lots of additional life that was simpler than what we have here on Earth or even full dolphin and elephant and chimp smart, wouldn’t seem likely to humble us much. And maybe shouldn’t, I’m a big fan of humanity but never one to say we lack in pride and couldn’t benefit from a bit more humility, and I don’t think it would actually change if I found out for certain tomorrow that we either did live in an entirely natural and nihilistic existence or were God’s favorite critters and most prized creation. I’m thinking finding out that we’re the apex species not just of Earth but every world we haven’t even visited yet that’s covered in simpler animals or even alien pond scum is not going to make us suddenly find a big old slice of humble pie.
And if it did we would probably proudly proclaim how humble we were compared to our ancestors. Though to be honest, I’m pretty sure that even if it turned out we were in the Matrix and the simulation suddenly ended and we were an accident or failed experiment we’d find a way to make ourselves out to be pretty grandiose. I can imagine an embarrassed programmer showing up in the sky one day and saying “Not sure how to tell you this but your world was something my kid designed and forgot and left running in the basement and you’ve been sitting in the basement because I was too lazy to clean and organize the place and well, when I found your Universe running there it seemed wrong to just shut you off and well, here you are, I figured I should let you know, and I’ll leave the lights on, good luck.”
I imagine a lot of us would choose not to believe that or that it was untrue and some kind of test, but I think even if we did believe it we would say its proof how awesome we are to have emerged on our own on a discarded computer or Petri dish. Obviously in this context you have to view the Universe principally through the lens of the Anthropic Principle, rather than the Mediocrity Principle we tend to prefer for science, and it is the literal nature of the Anthropic Principle to be rather self-centered. For my part I do think we genuinely are special and exploring the Universe and finding or not finding others, people or just other life, merely helps us clarify how we are special, and even if we found out the whole Observable Universe was empty of other life it wouldn’t prove we were a fluke or created or that there weren’t countless other universes or that the unobservable portions of our universe weren’t infinite and populated too. We have no idea what the odds of life emerging are or evolving to complexity or brains or tool use or starships is, and until we encounter some other examples of these things we can only hypothesize and thus far at least, we haven’t had any success with determining the odds on any part of life coming about and it's one of those problems that make accurately modeling the weather look like modeling a game of tic-tac-toe. Indeed one reason to simulate Universes is to try to guess those odds better through detailed models.
So we might have to explain to a simulated universe’s inhabitants we made one day how we made them in order to figure out how likely it is we were alone, in our universe, but at least we could confirm if in their pocket universe, they were alone. If we start encountering inhabited worlds, even if just by mold or slime, then that lets us use the good old fashioned Mediocrity Principle and determine the frequency of slime planets and mold worlds and what factors seem to improve those odds or hurt them and draw some real numbers on how often planets will have life. Same for each other case too. But even if we found complex and intelligent life on a planet on every hundredth star we visited, that still doesn’t solve the Fermi Paradox, only encountering or seeing another technological civilization, past or present, would do that. As would finding out that our dreams of space colonization were ambitious but impractical.
Presumably whether it's us or someone else there was someone who showed up first in this universe, and indeed probably several different places, maybe several million, would have emerged first and been eons thinking they were alone before ever seeing evidence of another civilization, even an older one. Now in science fiction when folks contemplate this elder race – which would be us in this case – they explore and get sad they run into no one else, and maybe start creating or kindling new civilizations. That’s poetic but I don’t really think that would much be the case unless it specifically was a uni-mind, one big conscious planet or hivemind. For the rest of us, well there’s tons of fellow humans, or aliens, to chat with and explore alongside, including all your mutant cousins who settled elsewhere. It’s also the slow way to do it, seeding a planet with life and waiting for intelligence to emerge billions of years later, and with apparently slim odds of it ever happening even if you seeded millions of worlds. If you’ve had advanced technology for thousands of years, odds are you’re master of genetics and even formulating entirely new strains of life that aren’t carbon-based – assuming you were – and you should be able to terraform life and even build entirely new sapient species like hyper-intelligent squids, or dragons or unicorns, basically from scratch in centuries not geological timescales.
You might be patient but patience implies delaying serves a good purpose, and I’m not seeing one there. Now you can actually make a strong case for that singular mind existing by itself and first. A Boltzmann Brain – that’s one that simply assembles by random distribution of atoms into a mind, not by long evolutionary processes – is always on the table and in Universes with different physical constants might be way more likely to emerge than brains via evolution, especially as we don’t know the odds for that anyway. However, in an evolutionary context it's not really that hard to imagine a sharp left with early neurons and multicellular organisms into something that was basically a big algae mat and brain and one that evolved a parasitic or symbiotic ability to infect other organisms and influence their behavior to its benefit, to be its hands and feet, so to speak.
That could get ve ry sophisticated, as we contemplated in our recent episode on the Gaia Hypothesis, and even up to World Brains, like we looked at in our Conscious Planets episode. And critically, I could see that being a very fast evolver, something that was up and running in the first couple billions years of a planet forming, when photosynthesis was still new, long before the Cambrian Explosion. Because there’s not really much complex there, brains aren’t really that complex as hardware, anymore than computers are, they’re just expensive the way we do them and thus big ones are hard to evolve, but if you’re a network of simple organisms where the brain is simply a byproduct of that organism, it's more plausible I think. We are not such a mind but I wouldn’t be shocked if it turned out a vast number of the first intelligences were such planet brains, and their own attitude toward colonization might be very different than ours.
The universe may contain vast numbers of such world minds and we’re the rare exception. Alternatively, just as a reminder of how improbable complex life is, if all Earth’s existence was compressed into a single year, where the planet had formed on January 1st and the Moon Landings happened a fraction of a second before New Year’s, and every day is 12 million years and every second 143 years. Then the Cambrian Explosion didn’t happen until mid-November and most of the rest of time life was achingly simplistic. So we shouldn’t assume that step up is easy or simple and universal. Continuing that analogy though, if all Earth’s timeline was one year, then the Universe itself is about 3 years old now and two when Earth was born. When this episode airs on December 8th, that would be when the earliest mammal existed and even dinosaurs were new, and humanity discovered fire about 10 pm on New Year’s Eve and figured out how to do pottery and writing a minute before midnight and our first colony on Mars should be up by a second into the new fourth year, our first interstellar colony a few seconds later, and the whole galaxy colonized by that first day, probably early in the morning too, but remember a day is 12 million years here, and that’s long enough for colonization at just 1% of light speed to occur, and odds are good we could send ships at a high fraction of light speed.
Early in year 4, just a week or two in, we could easily have colonized hundreds of galaxies, and by the Spring, tens of thousands, and a civilization that emerged somewhere else in the Universe a few months ahead of us, back when we hit the Cambrian or a little earlier, could easily be at this state, as could something that came from a planet a bit younger than ours who just hit their Cambrian or their Apollo mission 10% or 20% faster than we did. Or some world that was a couple billions years older but where evolution ran 10% or 20% slower. They presumably would be asking these same questions, and someone had to be it, so maybe it is us, but if it is, then it's not some species that arrived fast when the Universe only recently had a handful of rocky planets like Earth, but long after they were common. By deduction, the longer the Universe aged without creating something able to look up at the sky and ponder if it was alone, the less likely intelligent life in general would be, and for the apparent absence we currently observe, no huge K3 empires in galaxies a billion light years away, those odds don’t appear to be super high. But they could be so rare that even if the Universe were a million times larger than what we observe, we might still have only one sibling or even none. We truly do not know, but ultimately, to find out we must head into space, and if the answer turns out to be no, we were the first, then with all the more urgency to improve the odds life will flourish in this galaxy and beyond, in case anything should happen to Earth.
In the end the stars are our destiny, whether we’re first or not. As we head into the holiday seasons it’s worth remembering that it's often as trying a time as it is fun, and I get reminded of the time the Army sent me to Montana in December for a few weeks and I got to learn the true meaning of cold and barely got on the last flight before a storm that would have buried us in snow till after Christmas. Needless to say I was grateful for a big collection of digital audiobooks and headphones, especially with some of the snoring in the barracks, and if you’ve ever been stuck at an airport waiting for a flight you know how nice it is to have good audio, whether you’re trying to hear a loved one over the crowd noise on the phone or just watch a movie or listening to a book, and a nice pair of noise isolating earbuds from Raycon is a great gift for yourself, or a loved one, this holiday season. And at half the price of other premium audio brands, you can buy a pair for yourself and as a gift for a loved one. Their wireless earbuds, headphones, and speakers offer premium sound; useful features; an almost-custom, comfortable fit; and up to 54 hours of battery life.
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So that’s it for today but join us again this weekend for our Scifi Sunday episode on Interplanetary conflicts and Civil Wars, then we’ll be back here next Thursday to contemplate how we might go about farming on new planets, like Mars, and in two week we’ll look at the controversial idea that our whole Universe might be a black hole, and also if it would be possible to retreat into black holes in this Universe and live inside them. If you want alerts when those and other episodes come out, don’t forget to subscribe to the channel and hit the notifications bell. And if you enjoyed today’s episode, and would like to help support future episodes, please visit our website, Isaac Arthur.net, for ways to donate, or become a show patron over at Patreon.
Those and other options, like our awesome social media forums for discussing futuristic concepts, can be found in the links in the description. Until next time, thanks for watching, and have a great week!