T&E Business Standards Workshop #1 for Industry
>> Thanks, all folks that joined the call. We're just going to wait a few more minutes for some folks to log on. Really appreciate your time and we should be kicking off in just a few more minutes from now.
Thank you. And if you've joined the call by phone, it would be great if you could put your name and affiliation in the chat feature. Thanks so much. Just going to wait a few more minutes. In the meantime, I'll let you know you're going to hearing from Tom Mueller from the Office of Governmentwide Policy and Michael Salter from the ETS Next program office in just a few minutes we'll be kicking off.
Michael will run through some run of show housekeeping things that we'd like to relay to you, and then we'll get right into the presentation. I think that -- I hope that you saw in the invite that this takes about an hour, depending on Q&A. So hopefully, you'll get an hour back of your time and that's always a good thing. [ Silence ] So Michael, I think we can kick it off anytime in the next, like, two minutes or so. >> Okay.
>> Thanks so much. >> You're welcome. I'll give it just another minute and then we can go ahead and get started. >> Perfect.
[ Silence ] I think you're good according to the attendee list. >> Okay. Well, good afternoon, everybody. Thank you for taking the time to meet with us today. My name is Mike Salter, and I am with the Office of Travel and Employee Relocation and Transportation, which is part of the Federal Acquisition Service.
That includes both the ETSPMM, who is responsible for the current ETS2 solutions, as well as the ETS Next PMO who is -- which is responsible for the next generation of travel and expense, including the acquisition strategy. I have with me Tom Mueller with the Office of Governmentwide Policy. He is the standards lead for travel and expense management. The Office of Governmentwide Policy supports and maintains the federal travel regulation, has reporting responsibilities to congress, and is responsible for determining the per diem available to federal employees on a yearly basis. And in addition, that also includes the Office of Shared Solution and Performance Improvement, which is part of OGP, and they coordinate the governance managed program management and develop processes to support development and implementation of R&D policy as it relates to mission support services such as travel and financial management. A couple of housekeeping items as Liz noted and you should have received my email that this workshop will be recorded and posted to the ETS Next Industry community page on Interact.
Hopefully, when you received the invitation, you registered on Interact and set it up, so you do see notices when we do post additional information. For those that logged into the webinar, all participants are on mute and there is no individual camera access for today. For those of you that called in on your phone, we ask that you please mute yourselves.
If you have any technical difficulties this afternoon, we ask that you please use the chat tool and Liz Barnaby from our office will be monitoring that. And if you have any questions, we ask that you please use the Q&A functionality within Zoom. There is also the option to upload a question if you have the same or similar question, and that will help us kind of prioritize when we do respond to the questions. Just a little more information on the sessions that you've been invited to, we imagine today's workshop will be approximately an hour depending on the number of questions. The workshop on Thursday will be closer to the two hours that we have scheduled as we're going to go into a review of the artifacts for the travel and expense standards, as well as three examples on how to read the standards themselves. And finally, workshop number three on Tuesday, November sixteenth.
The length of that session will depend on the number of questions we get and the frequently asked questions that we develop prior to the seminar, and of course, any questions asked during the open question and answer session itself. So that could be anywhere from half an hour to two hours depending on what type of questions that you all have for us. So today's agenda is an overview of the travel and expense business standards from Tom Mueller of OGP, kind of an overview of the Travel and Expense Management Committee, their process, and their schedule for yearly updates to the standards, and finally, why the travel and expense business standards matter to you all, and I will be taking over at that point. But as of now, I would like to turn it over to Tom Mueller with OGP. Tom. >> Thank you, Michael, and good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen.
Thank you for calling in, dialing in, logging into today's presentation. My name is Tom Mueller. I am the director of the Travel, Relocation, Transportation, and Mail Policy division within the Office of Governmentwide Policy. My team establishes and develops the federal travel regulation. We also establish the annual per diem rates for federal travelers, as well as the annual calendar year POV mileage rates, among other things. I am also the lead for the Travel and Expense Management Standards.
My team and I assumed this role in October of 2019, and we're looking forward to helping you understand what this thing called FIBF is all about. The emphasis of it is in April of 2019, the Office of Management and Budget published the OMB Memo 1916, centralized mission support capabilities for the federal government. This OMB memo established the long-term vision for modernizing the federal government in key areas such as travel and expense, grants management, several areas within the human capital such as payroll and among others, cyber security as well.
And it also established a governance process for this modernization effort. The Federal Integrated Business Framework, or more commonly called -- referred to as the FIBF. It's a business model that enables the federal government to coordinate and document common business needs across a function area, line of business, service area -- it goes by many terms. And for our purposes within the travel and expense management space, the process is system agnostic, meaning it could be a fully manual process, it could be a fully automated process, it could be a hybrid of something in between.
The process focuses on outcomes, data, processes, and performance and it also is used to drive economies of scale and leverage to the government's buying power. In 1995, when the federal government first moved to an electronic travel system, there were no government-wide standards. There were a lot of bumps and bruises along the way. In ETS2 with the current generation that we are operating under now, there were many lessons learned, but the agencies wanted unique configurations and wanted things highly customizable, which led to a significant breakdown in the government's ability to analyze government-wide data, and it also resulted in a poor user experience both from the traveler's perspective and the management perspective, as well. Next slide, please.
[ Silence ] So as the standards lead for Travel and Expense Management -- or T&E -- in coordination with Mike Salter's team in the Federal Acquisition Service, we facilitate an interagency working group developing the baseline standards that were ultimately approved by OMD and the [inaudible] process continuing to go on through this FIBF process. At this point, I want to kind of go -- do a little bit of a deep dive on what these business standards, the artifacts are called, what it includes, the functions and activities, business capabilities, use cases, standard data elements, and then service measures. I want to unpack these just a little bit to give you a little bit better understanding of what each of those mean.
Within the functions and activities, also the service activities, these identify the end-to-end business processes and outcomes required by the government to support travel and expense. For me, it's the foundation upon which all the other artifacts are built. As I said, they're also referred to as functions and activities list.
Within these functions and activities, or the service activities list, there are several large buckets of which things fall in in the process. Those large buckets include the travel personnel profile setup and maintenance. It includes the travel reservation assistance and processing, the travel authorization processing, travel ticketing, traveler emergency assistance request processing, travel voucher processing and audit, then there's several reporting requirements such as regulatory reporting, management or agency reporting and analysis, and then management and audit. Within each of these large buckets that I just broke out, there is a list or a sentence of various activities that are performed, or processes that are accomplished that provide identifiable outputs or outcomes. They're all presented in a logical sequence of events, and it covers all the processes of the lifecycle in that particular bucket or service activity. For example, within the travel personnel profile setup and maintenance, one would start with first of all, documenting, identifying, or importing baseline information such as names, organizational information, contact information.
One would then move on to identifying a role for that individual. Are they a traveler, a travel arranger, travel approver, or some other role within this ecosystem called travel and expense? They'll also identify eligible family members for this to determine and document who those individuals are, their -- if it's a traveler, their travel preferences, window seat, aisle seat, king bed, smoking, non-smoking, and those sorts of things. And then that profile would then be activated. Periodically, the profile may need to be updated. A person's role may be changed. That role is then updated.
And then finally, the role would be deactivated. So it's a cradle to grave process within just the travel personnel profile set up and maintenance. Similar thing would be done within the travel reservation piece. The travel management center is contacted, a reservation is made, go through various changes, tripping a reservation being cancelled. Similarly, a travel authorization is created. A travel authorization would go through many iterations and various functions in our service activities, taking [inaudible] within that, to get finally, ultimately, a travel authorization maybe cancelled.
Similar thing to be done in each of these buckets of service activities, and those are the descriptions for each of those. So the second artifact that one would find is the business capabilities, and these describe the business needs and the information flow required to perform travel and expense. They identify the inputs such as names and organizational information, locations, that sort of thing. It would also describe a process; some things are being calculated or deriving something from these various inputs.
And then there would be the outputs for each of these items. Business capabilities are known as the Lego blocks for travel and expense. Not all of the capabilities are required for each and every trip, but somewhere in the process, business capabilities would be required.
For instance, if a person is driving an automobile, there would be no need to ticket a reservation for an airline, yet if one has to fly, then you would obviously need that capability. So again, not all of the capabilities are required for each and every activity, but at some point in the ecosystem, these capabilities would be utilized. The next artifact -- yeah, so also have within the business capabilities, each of these inputs, outputs, they point to the authoritative source for it. The authoritative source being the federal travel regulation, the foreign affairs manual, there may be some OMB direction that takes place, or some other law or statute that points to why this particular activity is being done.
Next, we have the use cases. And the use cases are the real-life application of how the capabilities work in various scenarios, where the functions and activities and capabilities represent the theories of travel and expense, the use cases bring it to yeah, this is the way it would look like in real life. There are various capabilities and scenarios that work together, which ultimately pulls back all of the business capability. There are three levels to the use cases. So level 1, level 2, level 3.
It's not rocket science on the descriptions, but the level 1 use cases represent high-volume or high-transactional activity and high-dollar amount. They probably about 80 to 85% of all of government travel within the level 1 use cases. Level 2 use cases represent high-volume or high-dollar amount, and then level 3 -- no less important than others, we're not measuring importance, we're just measuring frequency or dollar amount associated with it -- are the level 3 use cases.
For example, the death of an employee while on official travel. Very important, it is just not done very often, but there is a use case on how to handle the death or the events that take place when an employee dies while on official travel. Within the level 1 use case, you would see a domestic trip with a date change. That's the very first use case out of the chute, and that probably is the most common used scenario within government travel. Whether a date change is required or not, it's just your vanilla trip. Leaving on a Monday, coming back on a Thursday.
Maybe going to a conference or some mission travel. But that's probably the bulk of all the government travel. Within each use case, there is a synopsis that describes the scenario to kind of give you the word picture for it. There are the assumptions and the tendencies about how this -- for instance, there are no assumptions as to who or what performs a particular event within this scenario. You know, being system agnostic, it could be fully automated, it could be fully manual along the way.
And it doesn't say who does it, it just says this thing needs to be done. And there is also an initiating event. Somebody is informed they have to go to a conference. That's the initiating event. And then there is a typical flow of events.
There are both travel and expense events that take place, as well as some interaction with the financial management system or records management, we'll get into that in just a little bit, but it's the flow of events for that given scenario or that given use case, and they have inputs and outputs on that. The next thing we have are the standard data elements. These are the names, the definitions, the domain values for inputs and outputs, things such as individuals' names, and phone numbers, and organizational information, and per diem locations, and all these standardized data elements that need to be done. Expense types, trip purposes, those sorts of things, all these data elements are combined, so there's no customization of that. These are -- this is the baseline standard data elements that will be available to every organization and within the travel and expense management system.
And then lastly, there are the service measures. They were formally called performance measures. They're targets for things, but this is how the government defines successful delivery of the service. These will be -- currently will be pending office of management budget approval, and they'll be approved within the baseline standards. But all of these up for -- the service measures have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget. Service measures success looks like the timeliness of something being done.
Is it being done efficiently? And then how accurate is it being done? There's a litany of performance measures that are available within the baseline standards, and all of these baseline standards, these artifacts of functions and activities and that's the foundation upon which everything is built. It is the high-level theory, the capabilities, identify how the information flows through this process, the use cases, or the real-life application of what the theory looks like, the standard data elements and the service measures. These will all be the foundation to establish our next generation travel service. Next slide, please. A little bit of background information about this. In -- as I said, in October of 2019, my team assumed the role as the travel and expense standards lead.
In May of 2020, we submitted the baseline artifacts that we had inherited through the Federal Acquisition Service when they owned the process earlier. They were submitted to the office of management budget to support the business needs for travel and expense for the next generation procurement of travel and expense. The goal, here, is to eliminate these agency-unique configurations and processes and have the standards for them. They're all supported through these authoritative sources, FTR, the Foreign Affairs Manual. We want to standardize and simplify how the travel and expense system integrate with the financial management system and the voucher or expense report process and standardize that. We also want to improve the user experience, reduce the time on task to do something, and we also want to be able to facilitate analysis of government-wide data, which currently is an impossible task due to the unique configurations and data elements that the agencies have had.
So all of these baseline standards will enable and facilitate these benefits to the government moving forward. Next slide, please. So a little bit of background information on the travel and expense standards, the management committee.
In 2017 to 2018, for about a period 18 months, the Federal Acquisition Service -- Mike Salter and crew and team, as well -- they facilitated an interagency working group to review and establish the initial baseline standards with MIDER, the owners of this process called FIBF. And after they were done with that in October of 2019, passed that role onto my team, reviewed these documents, looked at them, moved them forward to OMB, and then were ultimately approved. During this past year, we -- my team took a hard look at the standards that we had inherited and found some policy gaps, and so we wanted to close those gaps. And so we incorporated -- or have incorporated those changes into the revised baseline, which will be submitted to OMB early calendar year '21 and hopefully will be all approved and publicly available mid-year of 2022. So you're aware that we met bi-weekly with this interagency working group for a period of several months, discussed the proposed changes to something, the additions or the deletions of it, asked them to review some proposed changes and provide their feedback.
That feedback was then addressed, resolved, and incorporated into the revised baseline standards, which again, we will be moving forward later on in the early 2022. Next slide, please. So a little bit about the governance process, how this is done.
There is -- each of the standards leads, travel and expense, we document the business needs using these authoritative sources. We get the interagency -- cross agency collaboration and feedback. We also collaborate with other functional areas, we'll talk about that with travel and expense, and financial management and human capital, collaborate with them, get the feedback, and then go through this cross-agency working group. Once the artifacts are revised and finalized, we send them up to the business standards council.
Each of the functional areas are represented at the business standards council, within that, there's travel and expense, grants management, records management, cyber security, HR. All of the standards get together, they look at these standards and see where the logical touch points are with their functional area, and if they have any questions or concerns or comments about how another group of standards interface with theirs, those are addressed. If there happens to be some unresolved differences, which at this point have never had to be invoked in the two years that this process, the FIBF model has been in operation, it would move to the shared services governance board to mediate any of these cross-functional area concerns that are unresolved.
Once those are then resolved, the package goes up to the Office of Management Budget for their review and their concurrence. And then once they review it, those baseline artifacts are then publicly available on the USSM business site. And currently, all of the approved functional standards are available on that website. And this is an iterative process; it's done every year. By and large, we don't expect very many changes to take place.
Perhaps there's been a change in law, regulation, or statute or some other policy changes, but they should be pretty consistent, pretty solid absent of some of those changes. But every year, we will review these, look at them, make sure that they are citing the right sources, that the laws are still correct. So every year we go through that review, this governance cycle.
Next slide, please. As has been alluded to earlier, this process isn't done in a vacuum, it's done with many other organizations, their functional areas, as well. Within this FIBF model, there are these vertical processes. Travel and expense is its own thing. Human capital is its own thing. Federal financial management is its own thing.
Grants management is its own thing. They're their own standards, functional areas, but there are also logical touch points with that. Travel and expense, since we're looking to reimburse employees, there's also going to be an integration with the Federal Financial Management System, and that's within the obligation process lifecycle, but then there are also touch points with human capital, getting employees' names and their organization information. So each of these vertical areas have some touch points, but then there are also the horizontal functional areas, which permeate throughout all of the functional areas. For example, electronic records management.
Within travel and expense, you identify when something becomes a record, and then what those retention purposes are based upon the standards provided by the electronic records management functional area. There's also going to be cyber security services that are required. Those permeate throughout the entire travel and expense system, as well. So again, there are vertical areas such as travel and expense, but then the horizontal areas such as records management and cyber security. Next slide.
So that is it for me. Michael, the floor is all yours. >> Thank you, Tom.
Greatly appreciate that. So at this point, we would like to discuss why the travel and expense business standards matter to industry. First of all, it's been approved by the Office of Management and Budget. This is a cross government exercise, and the overall process was established by the Office of Shared Service and Performance Improvement, which is part of the Office of Governmentwide Policy, and this process was designed, as Tom stated, for the development of standards that can cross across various service areas, lines of business, what have you. The culmination of this government effort was the standard artifacts, including the business use cases, the business capabilities, and the standard data elements. The initial working group and the current Travel Expense Management Standards committee is comprised of representatives of both the travel and expense solutions used today, as well as all four of the financial management solutions used today, SAP, Oracle, PeopleSoft, and CGI Momentum.
This is the first time the government is going to market with a common business process instead of business standards. I would equate the business standards similar to business requirements in a standard software development life cycle. Under ETS1 and ETS2, as Tom noted, there were just really a collection of requirements, as requested and needed by the agencies at the time that led to some very unique customization and processes. So this time, we do have a set of standards of what the common business process for travel and expense will be. The core travel and expense solution will handle reservations both online via an online booking tool, as well as through an agent with a travel management company.
Authorization, also referred to as pre-trip approval, fulfillment, or ticketing from the travel management company include an automated quality control, the voucher or expense report, and regulatory and standard travel expense reporting. And this is also the first time that we are coordinating directly with the financial management community on the interface standards, including standard integration, standard file formats, and standard data elements. And by the financial management community, that includes Treasury's Office of Financial Information and Transformation, the Financial Management Standards committee who is responsible for the financial management standards, and the Financial Management Quality Service Management Office, or QSMO, who will be implementing a core financial solution in fiscal year '22-'23 using their standards for financial management. And working with the financial management community, we have mapped the use cases to the financial management use cases, and we have mapped the standard data elements to the financial management's data elements, setting the groundwork for the development of that standard integration and standard file format.
So these travel and expense business standards will be used as the basis for the ETS Next requirement. So as part of that work, the integration standardization with both human capital and financial management, electronics record management, and cyber security standards are going to be incorporated into the next generation of travel and expense. The work with the federal financial management community, as I said, the FIT, the Financial Management Standards committee and the FM QSMO would be interface standardization and standard data elements. Working with human capital or human resource on developing an interface standardization for user profiles with a goal of increased automation for the management of user profiles in the next generation of travel and expense, and electronics records management and cyber security services, in addition to the necessary requirements as required by the Federal Acquisition Regulation and other appropriate sources.
These standards for electronic records management and cyber security will be incorporated, as well. So at a minimum, agencies will most likely need to update their financial management interfaces to align with the new standard integration for travel and expense, and financial management to align with the core financial solution, including the standard data elements, which as I stated, have been mapped between travel and expense and financial management. So to summarize what Tom and myself have addressed today was a overview of the business standards, a high-level overview of the standards development process and the artifacts, the Travel and Expense Management Standards committee process and schedule, which is the government process for management of the travel and expense business standards that's done on a yearly basis, and why the Travel and Expense Business Standards mattered, it's OMB approved, and it's the first time we have a government-wide, end-to-end business process for travel and expense. So at this point, I'd like to open the floor, so to speak. So any questions first about the session information itself? If you could use the Q&A function and we'll address those that come up related to the session itself on the information provided by Tom and I.
>> We realize it's a lot of information to take in at one time, so you know, you'll have another bite at the apple Thursday if there aren't any questions now. And then we have that Q&A, and entire session devoted to Q&A for the third session. So we know it's a lot of information to take in.
If you are having trouble finding the Q&A feature, it should be at the bottom of your -- of the Zoom call, and yeah. Just going to be a couple seconds and it looks like we do have a question. Michael, do you want to take it or do you want me to answer? >> Yeah, I'll go ahead and I'll answer this one. So yes, the slides in the videos will be shared with the participants.
They'll be available on our Interact page. It will probably take a week or two as we do have to ensure that they are [inaudible] compliant when they are posted, but yes, they will be available and if you have registered and subscribed to our page, you will be notified when the information is posted. Will future sessions be duplicates or new information provided? Very good question. Today's session was just to kind of give a high-level overview of the business standards, themselves. In our next session on Thursday, we are going to do a deep dive into the artifacts, themselves. We're going to review the artifacts, including the service function activities list, the use cases, the business capabilities, and the standard data elements to first review the artifacts overall, and then we will walk through three examples of how to read the business standards and ensure that you're looking at all of the artifacts associated with the capabilities.
So we'll be looking at the service function activity area. For example, the first example will be on how to make a reservation. So we'll look at the appropriate service function activity area, which is basically travel reservation assistance and processing. We will look at the associated use case. In fact, we'll be using the level one, number one use case that Tom referenced that we believe accounts for about 80 to 85% of travel.
We will then look at the capabilities associate with the use case, and finally the standard data elements that tie to the capabilities, the use case, and the service function activities, and we'll do two additional examples, as well. So it will be a much more in depth look at the standards themselves. Today's purpose was just to set a high-level understanding of the business standards. >> Jamie had a question about the use cases incorporating the cross-functional areas.
>> Yeah. Yes. So in the examples that we go through on Thursday, one of the -- the second example will be on the funds check and obligation of an authorization, and we will show how the use case for travel and expense ties to the appropriate use case for financial management and show you the exact use case that it's associated with, as well as provide you information where to locate the standards for financial management so you can take a look at that use case, as well. As Tom noted, all of the standards are available on USSM's website. On most of the slides either today or on Thursday, we do provide the links to the appropriate section within USSM's site, including travel and expense, financial management, electronics records management, and cyber security. And in fact, most of the use cases and examples for electronics record management are associated around travel because that was one of their first areas of focus. [ Silence ] >> I'll give it another minute or two to see if we have any questions about this particular session, and if not, we'll open it up to any additional questions either about the session, the standards, or the upcoming sessions that we have planned.
Again, this Thursday will be a deep dive into the artifacts themselves, as well as three examples to better understand how to read the standards and understand them. And then the session on November sixteenth will allow for a follow up opportunity for question and answers once you all have had an opportunity to go and look at the standard -- download and look at the standards themselves. You will be able to submit questions during that two-week period and we'll develop frequently asked questions depending on the questions, and then also have the ability to answer any additional questions you have during that time frame. Larry, I see you have a question about the integration and what framework they would be expecting for it. Can you expand upon that a little? >> If I may, as we're waiting for that, travel and expense worked extensively with the financial management community this past year to really identify what these integration points are. There's something called the business information exchange, financial management looked at all of the service areas because they needed to make sure that the financial management system had enough functionality in it to accomplish what all of the areas do.
One of them had to do with whether it's called an obligation or a -- whatever the terminology was, a voucher or expense report, invoice, those sorts of things. But it's the same thing; it shows the payment of something. So we worked heavily with the financial management community to identify these touch points, and those are incorporated into our business standards and they will be on the next iteration of the standard data elements. >> Thank you, Tom. Larry, I'll try and answer the question from my perspective, and certainly feel free to follow up via email. You can reach our office at ETSNext@gsa.gov and that will go to the ETS Next PMO,
but as Tom noted, we have worked extensively with the financial management community, the Financial Management Quality Management Service Office, the Financial Management Standards committee, and the Office of Financial Innovation and Transformation on the development -- of setting the necessary basis for the development of a standard integration and obligation process life cycle for travel and expense. So the obligation process life cycle covers the end-to-end process of financial management integration for travel and expense throughout the life of a travel document, all the way from the initial reservation, the travel authorization, through to the payment of a travel voucher. So we believe we are addressing what that obligation process life cycle will look like.
This will be a standard. We have also been working with the financial management community on a number of items such as business object class codes and how to drive some object class codes to standardize a number of financial management things that have made some of the integrations today very custom. We will be having standards for those types of items. In addition, in the standard data element, there are also standard data values for a number of those standard data elements, which will help facilitate that government wide reporting that Tom was talking about today. It's very hard to normalize that data because there are so many variations on the data elements that exist today.
But the financial management community is very interested and has been very good with working with us, and as the financial management QSMO works to implement their core financial solution, they're also working with those agencies. If they are not going to be using the core financial solution, working with them to ensure that they are also implementing the financial management standards either into their existing financial solutions. There are several agencies today that are transitioning and are -- have worked with both LMB and the Financial Management Quality Service Management Office to ensure that they incorporate the standards.
And as we move down toward the path of ETS Next as agencies look at whether they move to the new core financial solution or do their own solution, that those standards will be incorporated as part of that process. Okay. Hopefully, Larry, that addressed your question, but as noted, if you have additional questions, please feel free to reach out to us via email. >> I think that might just wrap it up a little bit. We'll hang out a couple more minutes just in case folks have questions but thank you so much for all that attended, and we look forward to seeing you on Thursday, as well. And that -- >> Thanks.
Look forward to seeing you on Thursday. >> Yeah. And that session will only be with Mike. And Tom is welcome to attend, as well, but you know.
>> Yeah. So hopefully you like the sound of my voice, because you'll be hearing a lot of it on Thursday. >> All right, I think that does it.
I'm going to shut down the recording in just another minute. So thank you all, we really appreciate your attendance. Excited about ETS Next and thanks to the Office of Governmentwide Policy, Tom for all of your help in putting this today. I really appreciate it. >> Yes, thank you. >> Okay. All right.
Got 30 seconds, then I'm going to shut it down. Thanks so much, everyone. Okay. All right, bye guys.
We'll talk to you soon. See you later. >> Thank you. >> Thank you.