Socrates: Question Everything
This video is made possible by brilliance, you'll learn more about brilliant, later in today's video but if you'd like to learn more around them right now get a brilliant dog /by. Graphics, you'll also find a link in the description below. Socrates. Is considered. The father of Western philosophy he, was a man who questioned, everything, and, everyone, with no regard for how his opinions, would be received he imposed his views with a dogmatic, superiority. Thus eventually, sealed, his fate still. His great legacy to the world was the method of questioning, to arrive, at the truth which, is known as the Socratic, method, today on biographic, s-- we're going, to discover the man who was Socrates of. All. The great figures of antiquity, none are as frustrating. For the historian, as Socrates the, man never wrote down anything that has survived so the only records of his life come from secondary, sources the two main ones are from Plato his, devoted, students, and Xenophon. They contemporary. Of Plato these writings mainly consist of records, of conversations, that often included Socrates, himself discerning. The facts, of his life from such writings is a bit of a challenge, in fact this lack of solid biographical, information is, actually known as the Socratic, problem Socrates. Was either born in 469. Or 470. BCE, in a Greek village located a 20 minute walk away from Athens his father sovereign discus was a sculptor while his mother Feiner ata worked as a midwife sovereign, discus wanted his son to take on the craft of a sculptor so during, his youth he was apprenticed, to his father he apparently became an accomplished sculptor, with tradition, having it that he worked on a well-known statue entitled, the three muses, in their habits which was displayed at the Acropolis as a young man socrates devoured the writings of the Greek philosopher, and eggs a gross it is believed that he may have actually studied, under this master but this cannot be determined with certainty the, basic teachings all of Alexander, s were that, all things have always existed but, in their original form we're in tiny fragments, of their current form in Athens the Agora or public, square was the central meeting place for men who would discuss politics, art and philosophy, as he was Philly Youth Socrates, was not able to attend, the Agora instead, he spent much of his free time in the workshops, of the city's merchants, where he would engage them in philosophical, questioning. After some time working as a sculptor Socrates, went off to study under the philosophical, master arc Elias he studied mathematics and, astronomy and, became familiar with the work of earlier philosophers, according, to a third century biographer, by the name of Diogenes. Laetus, oculus, embarks, upon a homosexual, relationship with, Socrates a practice, which was widespread in ancient Greece at the time that Socrates began showing an interest in philosophy the, discipline was about a hundred years old the ideas that were being thrown around were largely theoretical barring, little, practical, application, Socrates, soon came to the realization, there the things that he was learning they didn't really have any benefit, to society he. Was far more interested. In addressing, the problems of everyday life despite, his curiosity, to understand, the world he was not, a scientific, thinker rather than questioning, the world to understand, how it worked he believed that we would be better off questioning.
Ourselves In, order to understand, how we work he adopted the quote which has often been wrongly attributed to him and that's, know thyself. With. The outbreak of the Peloponnesian, War in 431. BCE, Socrates, was recruited. As a hoplite, the equivalent, of a private third class he immediately stood, out among his fellow conscripts. Even though there is much discrepancy. About the details of his life there is one thing about Socrates upon. Which there is universal agreement, and, that's, that he was ugly he had a snub nose and, his hair was long and unkempt he also showed no interest in personal grooming and also rarely bathed, we know about Socrates military, service from the writings of Plato in Plato's work apology, he tells us that his master fought in the battles of Amphipolis, Delia and Potter Dyer another, chronicler, Alcibiades. Specifically, mentioned Socrates, heroic, actions, in the battle of Delian stating, that the philosopher saved his life during the fighting having completed his military service in 406, BCE Socrates, was appointed as a member of the bull which was a 500, member council which ran, the daily affairs of Athens, Xena form tells us that he was the overseer, of a debate that was held to determine the fates of a number of military commanders, who had abandoned. Their wounded in battle in order to pursue the Spartans the public were clamoring for the men's be put to death but Socrates he blocked the vote and he spared the men's lives. With. The end of the Peloponnesian, War in 404, BC there, was a period of upheaval in Athens that resulted, in the coming to power of a group known as the thirty tyrants these men instituted, a period of Terror marked by bloodshed and confiscation, of property after eight months the rebel, regime fell and was replaced with the Democratic, Greek governments, but that hardly meant that life was going to get better for Socrates in fact it, was about to get a whole lot worse Socrates. Was an opponent, of democracy, he believed that the people as a whole were incapable. Of self-rule. They needed a wise Shepherd to guide, them in their lives, he further claims that the ordinary citizen, did not possess any innate a virtue that would given them the ability to speak, on behalf of others virtue, he maintained was something, that is attained only by knowledge, and that knowledge was, beyond the scope of the everyday person these ideas they were sharply, at odds with those of the Athenian, society, in which Socrates lived, the, people cherished, the enlightened, right of every, citizen having.
A Voice in the assembly as a, result the ideas, of Socrates, were viewed, with suspicion if, not, outright hostility, things, weren't helped by there are the condescending, and arrogance, manner in which he expressed his views he was dismissive, of those who held views contrary, to his own this frequently, led to violent. Reactions, Diogenes records, that men set upon him with their fists, or tore his hair out faced. With this Socrates, bought all this ill-usage. Patiently. A fascinating, contemporary, view of Socrates is provided, by the Athenian. Comic playwright Aristophanes in. 423. BC he wrote a play called of the clouds in that play is a character, who is clearly, based on Socrates, this, character, the headmaster. Of a thinker II is presented. As a comic, buffoon who stalks, the streets barefoot. Looking down his nose at, the ignorant, masses and, for rolling his eyes at the unintelligible. Guttural, murmurings, that he hears Socrates, was apparently friendly, with Aristophanes, and held no grudge against such portrayals in fact Plutarch, quotes him is saying the following when they break a jest upon me in the theatre I feel, as if I were at a big party of good, friends, it appears then that around the four 20s, Socrates, was seen by most people as a, call audible, who was, slightly annoying but generally, harmless but, well, that view it, was about to change the democracy, that athenians so cherished, it was challenged, on two occasions during, Socrates, later years, during, a four-month periods in 411 - 410 BCE, Athenian. Democracy it, was overthrown, then in 404. BCE the thirty tyrants usurped, a democracy assuring. In eight months, of chaos, both of these interactions, were led by former students of Socrates, Alcibiades. And Critias relatives. Of Plato the first of these interactions, turns public opinion against, Socrates as the brains behind the coup with, the bloodshed caused by the seconds over three people began so you indirectly blame, the philosopher, for the carnage, with the coming to power of the thirty tyrants the former, leaders of the democracy fled to the mountains it was there that they plans their resistance, the elders of the new totalitarian. Government, did not directly, involve, Socrates, in the carrying out of their wicked act except, on one, single, occasion they, summoned him along with four other men and ordered them to go to Salamis, and apprehends. A learned man of, influence by the name of Leon, and then bring, him back to Athens to be executed, this man was an upstanding honest citizen, who had done nothing deserving. Of condemnation let, alone death Socrates. Refused, to do this dirty work stating that he would never perform an act that compromised, his integrity, however he didn't do anything to warn Leon of the impending danger as a result the other four men went ahead and apprehended, Leon and he was summarily put to death this, failure to proactively, warn Leon it would come back to Horn Socrates, at his upcoming trial rather, than being viewed as the local eccentric Socrates was now being seen by many as a dangerous, spreader of radical ideas that were leading, others to the most vile excesses, in 403. BCE, the rule of the thirty tyrants was over and the former, democratic, governments had been restored a General Assembly had been enacted which meant that no one including Socrates. Could be brought up on charges of, their actions during the eight months of tyranny, now just before we get into the downfall of Socrates I do want to briefly talk about today's, sponsor brilliant. And I know as always these ads in the middle less than awesome but brilliant are fantastic, for sponsoring this sort of longer content because it allows us to share these stories of some of the world's greatest historical, think, brilliant, or a science learning platform that allow you to learn through active, learning which sums up is basically, the opposite of that feeling of reading a bunch of complex information about, some principle and just, having it going completely over, your head and brilliant, don't just deal with the basics although they do cover, that as well they go all the way through to very complex, things like advanced. Statistics. Brilliant have a relatively, new feature it's called daily problems, and it's five minutes a day that you can use to exercise your brain and learn something new, each, problem provides you the context, and framework you need to tackle it that means you can learn concepts, by applying them that's that active learning this, sort of short daily practice can lead you from curiosity, to, mastery, in far less time than you might think I've been using brilliant, it's excellent, you should go try it out it just even, if it's just to see how quickly you can understand those complex, subjects, you can support this show by going to brilliant dog /by graphics, and now, let's get on with our exploration.
Of Socrates. Is life. Socrates. Was finally arrested in 399. BCE, by then the state has out of 4 years since the end of the last revolt to come up with some charges against him during that period Socrates, appeared, to be undeterred, by the return, to favor of democracy and the antipathy. Towards, those who espouse two views in opposition to it he continued, to deride democracy, and champion, rule by a strong leader when there was another attempted, overthrow in 401, the state at had enough of his revolutionising. Of the impressionable, youth it was now just a matter of time before he, was brought to account Athenian. Law allowed for any citizen to bring criminal proceedings, against another man a man, named mellitus, brought an oral summons against Socrates the summons required him to appear, before illegal, magistrates, who faced charges of impiety and corrupting, the youth the magistrate, heard out the applicants, and determines, that the were grounds, for a preliminary hearing, at that hearing the charges were read out and Socrates was given the opportunity to answer them a documents, containing the charges, was drawn up along, with the requested, penalty it read Socrates, is guilty of refusing, to recognize, the gods recognized, by the state and introducing. New divinities, is, also, guilty of corrupting. The youth the penalty demanded. Death the, actual trial took place of a period of nine hours in the Agora, in the center of Athens the jury was made up of five hundred citizens drawn, by lot the large number was standard, in ancient trials, and seemed to have been mainly to prevent bribery from swaying the outcome of cases after, the reading over the charges the three main accusers of Socrates, were given, three hours to present that case there, is no surviving, record of their testimony but we do know that the main accuser was not mellitus, but a certain, Anytus, who is also a politician who harbored ongoing resentments, against Socrates it is believed that the son of anita's was a student, with whom Socrates that, had a homosexual relationship something. Which greatly upset, the father it is likely that the main thrust of the accusations, was that Socrates was leading young people down a dangerous, political path, with his anti-democratic. Teachings, however in Plato's apology in, which he provides, an account of Socrates his defense considerable, weight is given to his defense of the charge of impiety piety.
In Those days involved not only respect, for the Greek gods but also for the dead and for one's ancestors, if, there was even one in, pious person, in the city it was a serious, matter as that once incursions, might bring the wrath of the gods upon the entire city even, though the Athenians, have no written scriptural, code and no priesthood, there was a significant, number of rituals, observances. And offerings. That were required, it is highly likely that socrates neglected, to observe the rituals of the gods that would have been expected, of him furthermore, he would have argued that the generally accepted view of worship, is being based on rituals, was wrong according, to Xena faun Socrates, had the ability to communicate directly, with, the gods this would have infuriated. Those in attendance at his trial including, the 500 jurors it is difficult for us to know just what if any religious, beliefs Socrates, actually, held throughout, his dialogues, Plato has, him referring to both one gods and also to plural, gods it has also been suggested that he viewed the word God is referring, to the philosophical idea, of goodness, a critical, part of the accusations, against, him had to do with his close association. With the, leaders of the thirty tyrants rebellion. Specifically, his ties to the leader of the revolt prettiest, in his defense socrates, brought up the time when he was ordered to go into Rath lien of Salamis, he claims that his refusal to do so was a clear indication that he was not in cahoots with the rebels and was indeed, a loyal citizen of Athens but, his accuser countered that a loyal citizen, would have done more than simply refrain. From the bad action, he would have warned, the innocent man and was therefore saved, his life, socrates spoke in his own defense for three full hours of the dozens. Of versions, of it that were made only two have survived down to our time those, of Plato and Xenophon. The versions agree that the master was defiant, in his tone almost as if he were inviting, an adverse, judgment as, part of his defense socrates, told the jurors that he was a hero he recalled his exemplary. Military service, he then extended, the thought with an analogy, telling them that he had fought for decades to, save the souls of young Athenians if teaching virtue made him guilty of corruption he said then, that he was guilty as charged. He then assured, his listeners with, the following men, of Athens I honor and love you but I shall obey God rather than, you and when I have life and strength, I shall never cease from the practice and teaching, of philosophy, in, the face of the charge that he was a Corrupter of the youth of Athens Socrates, stated that he never claimed to be a teacher he was merely a man who happened, to spend time strolling, around the city if he was asked a question he, would answer it to the best of his ability then. Pointing, to Plato and others of his followers in the crowd he pointed out that none of them had ever laid an accusation against, him those of his former students who had done bad he said did so because they corrupted, the things that he had set as, the marathon speech crew to a close it was obvious to everyone. Listening that Socrates had no intention, of stopping doing whatever it was that the people objected, to the only way to stop him we support him to death contrary, to normal practice, in such proceedings he made no please for, any mercy after, nine hours of proceedings, the jury of 500 were tasked, with making their decision unlike, today the jury did not retire to discuss their thoughts they simply, voted, by placing, a disk in one of two urns labeled guilty, or not guilty with the urn that held the most votes determining, the outcome when they had completed this task there were 280, discs in the guilty urn and 220. In the not guilty one but the jury's job it was not yet over they had to determine the penalty the accusers, of these rows and put forward their case that the condemned, umpires corruptor of the youth of Athens must, be put to death, Socrates, himself was then invited to put forward a case for leniency this, was his opportunity to win some favor with the jury perhaps by suggesting that, he be sent into exile, but true to his nature he refused to step down from his position of superior, integration. He should he suggested, to be rewarded. Rather than condemned, for his actions the court officials they were not impressed and he, was told to give a more realistic, alternative. Penalty, Socrates, then offered that he could be subjected to a modest fine faced, with these two extremes, of punishments, the jurors. They chose death. With. The trial now over Socrates, was taken to an adjoining prison cell according, to the records, of his final days penned, by Plato Socrates, was, given the opportunity to escape when he was visited, in his cell by his wealthy friend Crito this man had already laid plans to smuggle Socrates out of Athens, however the condemned man showed no interest in escaping, his fate the conversation.
Between The two men as Crito attempted, to persuade socrates to escape and the great philosophers, responses, present an important, aspect of Socrates, as moral code Crito. Afford three points, as to why Socrates should, escape from his death sentence, firstly, the death would be a bad reflection on the followers of Socrates's, people, would think that they'd abandoned, him secondly. All finances, involved in the escape were covered and furthermore, a comfortable, life in exile had been arranged, finally, his death would leave his sons without a father, in response socrates countered that a man should not worry about public opinion but only be guided by wisdom the only real question to consider in the situation, was whether or not it was just for Socrates to escape, his condemnation to, death he then spoke of the laws of Athens stating that to break one of those laws meant breaking them all to, go against the laws of Athens would be like a child rebelling, against a parent he argued if he dared to go against the laws of the city he asserted he would receive a harsh judgment in the underworld as, a result socrates, refused the offer of escape his fate it, was now sealed, Plato chronicled, his death in his work Phaedo in it he gives an eyewitness account from the viewpoint of the fictional character of fado according, to the accounts and came into the cell carrying cup of poisoned hemlock Socrates, turned to him and said now, good sir you understand, these things tell, me what I must do the man replied just, drink it and walk around until your legs begin to feel heavy then, lie down it, will soon act the, cup was then offered to Socrates he took it happily and asked if it was permissible for him to offer a pledge before drinking it permission, was granted and, he offered the following prayer, we, can and must pray to the gods that our sojourn, on earth will continue happy. Beyond the grave this, is my prayer and may, it come to pass at, this he drank the poison without hesitation, those, of his friends who were in the cell with him gave way to tears prompting, Socrates to declare you. Are strange fellows what, is wrong with you I send the women away for this very purpose to stop their creating, such a scene I have heard that one should die in silence, so please keep quiet and to keep control of yourselves, for, the next few minutes he walked around the room then, when his legs became heavy he laid down on his bed with a covering, over his face slowly, he, lost feeling first in his legs then moving up his body his, last words directed.
Crito Were Crito. We, owe a cock, to escape yes do, pay us don't. Forget this, seems a rather strange, request, but it makes sense when we realized that his creepiest was the god of good health the sacrifice, of a cock was a normal, offering, her thanks, for recovery from illness Socrates, believed that he was cured of the disease of life and was, as a result, not, frightened, of death, creature. Then asked him if there was anything else he wanted to say but, there, was no reply the poison had reached his heart and the, life of Socrates, was, drained away Plato, continued, his account with, these words this, was the end of our friends the best wisest. And most upright, man of any, that, I have ever known so. I really hope you found that video interesting, if you did please do give us a thumbs up below and don't forget to subscribe we've got brand new videos like this several times a week so, hit that subscribe button to find out about all of those also feeling there's something else watch right now why not check out my other channel today, I found out you'll find a link, to that in the description below and as always thank. You for watching. You.