Mao Zedong: The Chairman of Communist China
This video is made possible by shaker and spoon, shaker and spoon send out a cocktail, box each month with the ingredients. Needed to make bar quality, cocktails in your own home yet $20, off your first box by going to shaker in spoon comm /by, a graphics, there's, a link below, Bassam Mao Zedong was a much-loved, revolutionary. Hero who saved China from, the rule of foreign aggressors he modernize China by bringing the wonders of Western industrialization. To their Shores to others though he is remembered, for being a sociopathic. Tyrant. Who sacrificed. The lives of, millions, of people in, order to bring his political experiment. To, life in the, video today the, life of, the Chairman. A. Farmer. And landowner, named, Mao you Chang, was a self-made, man he was born into poverty but he worked hard and saved enough to buy two acres, of rice paddies over, the years he employed workers do tens the land for him and most of his profits, went back into expanding, his farm he builds a comfortable, life for his wife when, she may and their future children sadly. His wife had difficulty, getting pregnant and, she lost her first two children during infancy she, gave birth to her, only child, Mao Zedong in, 1883. Growing. Up Mao Zedong lived, very comfortable, life compared to his peers it was not uncommon for Chinese, children to walk around without shoes and wear clothes that were in tatters, they barely had enough food, to eat ins they could not afford proper health care the fact that Mouser Dongs parents, could afford to provide all of the basic necessities for, their child is why some people considered, them to be wealthy, the one thing that Mao Zedong had in common with all other children in China though was that he was taught the religion, and philosophy, of, Confucianism. One of his most well known teachings, is that everyone, should try to go with the flow and balance the energy of yin, and yang, when. It came to the government confucius, said that people should try to be satisfied. With their lot in life and they should know their place in, order for society, to run smoothly confucius, said there, is government when, the prince is Prince and the minister, is minister. When the father is father and the, son is son, however, Mao Zedong did not agree with everything Confucius, taught after, all he knew from firsthand, experience, that his father was able to work his way out of poverty he, wanted to believe that he could grow up to be more, than just a farmer's, son in, school Mao Zedong was one of the top students in his class and he loved reading as many books as he could get his hands on but at 13 years old his parents they, removed him from his elementary school in order to help his father work on the farm his father tried to arrange a marriage with a young girl named Luo Yi GU who was the daughter of a nearby farmer, and landowner, this would have ended his education, and completely sealed, his fate so, he refused to marry her at, 16, years of age he convinced, his parents that, he wanted to be an intellectual. And his parents agreed, to send him to a boarding school in the city of Changsha, when he was in this city he met other like-minded people, who believed, that there was a need to change the Chinese Way of life in, the eighteen hundred's China was seeing more and more trade, from, Western, countries from 1840, to 1840, to China, and Great Britain they had a big conflict, known, as the opium. Wars and trying, to lost after signing, the Treaty of Nanking Hong Kong became a British territory, and European, traders now had access to Chinese ports, even though this was a peace treaty the Chinese people nicknames this, the unequal treaties, because it appeared as though the Ching dynasty was, bowing to the demands of Great Britain China was far from being an industrialized. Nation their technology, was so far behind the rest of the world it was far too easy for Western, countries to take advantage, in 1895. Japan attempted, to overpower China and their influence, over Korea and this was known as the first sino-japanese, war, the, cherry on top of an already bad, situation came. In the year 1908, when the Emperor passed away and the only male heir to the Ching dynasty was. A two-year-old named, Phu you it's, not a surprise that people, began to lose their faith in the strength of the dynasty, in 1911, Mao Zedong was eighteen-years-old the Xinhai revolution happens. And the People's Republic of China brought an end to the Ching dynasty. After. Switching to the People's Republic the, overarching, government, was called the Kuomintang. Also, known as the Nationalist, Party or the KMT, the Kuomintang, allowed warlords, to rule, over their perspective, territories, across China each warlord, had the power to create their own laws charge, taxes. And raise, their own armies as a university. Student Mao Zedong's favorite, subject, was philosophy he, read The Wealth of Nations by, Adam Smith and the spirit of laws by Montesquieu, he also read all of the works of the Chinese revolutionaries.
Who Were behind the, People's Republic during. This time he created the Association, for student self-government. And said Hunan first Normal University so, that students could have a voice to protest, against the school rules he also formed, a student volunteer army the group had around 80 members and they all shared, their ideas on, government, and philosophy, it was during this time that Mao Zedong was introduced, to the work of Karl Marx, out of all the political philosophies. They studied, he and his friends, agreed with the ideas of communism, and this was because it promised that every person in society would have their basic needs met Mao, Zedong continued, to excel in school and he was number three in his graduating class he, got a job at Beijing University as, a librarian, where he was able to read as many, books as his heart desired the, Communist Party of China or CCP, was established, in 1921. One of the founders, leaders, how was a librarian. At Peking University the other was Chen duk-soo who, was an intellectual, who had been a part of establishing the People's Republic of China after, seeing how China adjusted, to the new Republic duk-soo, believed, that the Warlord's were taking advantage of the peasant class and that the political system needed. Adjusting, he thought communism would actually be better for their society Mao, Zedong was just 28 years old at the time and he was one of the many young people who began attending, communist, meetings after work once. People began to learn about the teachings of Karl Marx, the Communist Party of China gains, a huge following many, peasant, people were unhappy with their respective warlords and they wanted a new system of government of course communism, was posing a huge threat to the nationalist party unlike the rest of the parties in the Republic communism, actually, had the potential, to spread across the entire country. And replace. Them as the leading party they believed it was time to get rid of the Communists, in China before, they gains too much power in 1927. A gang working for the KMT attacked and killed members of the Communist, Party they, announced the plan to eradicate every, single member of the CCP this, event is remembered, as the Shanghai massacre, roar the April, the 12th purge over. 300,000. Communists, were killed and 50,000. People denounced. Their party affiliation out, of fear the, shanghai massacre is credited, for starting the chinese civil war since the KMT was the original. Party of the Republic of China they felt that it was time for them to eliminate, the feudal system of, warlords, and the Communists, as well in order to unite, all of China under one government. In. 1931. When Mao Zedong was 48, years old he was elected as the chairman, of the Communist, Party in 1934. The Chinese civil war was still raging on Mao Zedong led the members of the Communist Party and what is remembered, as the long march they trekked over, 4,000. Miles through mainland, China in their attempts to fend off KMT, forces, the leader of the Nationalist, Party chyann, kai-shek, was sending, troops after the Communists and he ran several campaigns, in his attempt to defeat, them Mao Zedong did not have an army as large as the KMT, but he had his charisma wherever. They went he used his power of persuasion to tell the villagers that communism, would, improve their lives he promised them that they would never go hungry again people. Were so unhappy living under, the rule of their warlords that it wasn't very hard to convince people to fight, for the cause after, losing thousands, of men in battles, that dawn would just restock. His army with new peasants, in the next village and just, keep on marching forward, in, 1937. All of China would have to hit pause on their Civil War because Japan was taking, advantage of the chaos by invading Manchuria, this was known as the second sino-japanese war, for, years Japan had attempted to take over Chinese territories, the Japanese they tortured, they killed they raped Chinese, civilians everywhere, and they went and decimated. The Chinese major cities the, armies of the Warlord's and the KMT they were already weakened, from the, as they sustained, while fighting each other there was no way they could fend off the Japanese Empire on their, own the, leader of the KMT Chiang kai-shek had, to swallow his pride and ask the, Communist Party for help their, red army was growing in numbers they defended, China against, the Japanese in what is known as the hundred, regiments, offensive, the Red Army was largely made up of peasants, who didn't, have time for proper, military training, so Mao Zedong used, guerrilla warfare tactics, they also called, in some help of the USSR, who closed in on Japanese occupied Manchuria, from the side while China, was on the other they, succeeded, in saving the country however once the Japanese were gone the civil war it, was back in 1946.
Mao Zedong in his Red Army defeated the KMT, and became, the new rulers of China at this point people fought, Mao Zedong was a national, hero and the rightful leader of their country not only did he save them from the Japanese, but he also unified. The country under one rule for the first time since the Qin Dynasty people. Were hopeful, that things would finally, start, to change for the better but. Actually they. Were gonna get a whole lot worse. In, 1958, Mao Zedong officially. Began his plan this was called the, Great Leap Forward this. Was his attempt to use communist, ideals to bring modern. Industrialization. To, China he might have had the best intentions, at heart but no matter how, many books one may read about creating, a new society there. Is a huge, difference between theory. And actually, doing something in real life the, Great Leap Forward created. A major land reform, where citizens were no longer allowed to own private property farmers, had to give up their land to the greater good of the public they still had to work but they were not allowed to keep the food they were growing because the rules dictated, that people who were far more important, to society deserved. Nourishment, first and that the peasants, could be fed with whatever was left over, he sent medical services, to all Chinese, villagers ensuring, that all the citizens had health care and they were fit enough to do manual labor he, commanded many of the people of China to start constructing, factories. And new governmental, buildings, most, peasants were farmers, their entire lives and then no idea how to work in a factory still, though they were expected, to produce steel. And other industrialized. Materials, there were so many people now working in factories, it was impossible, to properly, train or manage, everyone despite, having a lot of issues getting adjusted to the new policy the plan it actually worked for a very short window, of time crop, production, went up and people we're healthy errands had more food to eat than ever before despite, the setbacks the Chinese people were also able to erect a few modern buildings this. Progress it, all came crashing, down in less, than a year though, this happened in the winter of 1959, Mao, Zedong had suggested, that farmers, grow more grain, and this, was stored in silos however, without growing other types, of food to store for the winter months it remember people were expected, to survive, only, on bread in the winter the weather that year it was awful as well they experienced, widespread droughts, followed, by massive, typhoons, that caused flooding that destroyed crops tigers. Leopards and wolves were attacking farmers, as they tried to cultivate more land their fourth now created, an anti, pest campaign, where he encouraged, people to shoot these animals on sight and eat their meat this, pushed tigers and leopards near extinction, and people killed 70. Five percent of their population the, Great Leap Forward was. Actually, a huge step backwards for China and it created a widespread. Famine, that killed millions, of people people, resorted, to eating household, pets like dogs and cats just, in order to survive some, even, resorted, to cannibalism in. 1959. He was so unpopular that he had to step down as the chairman of the Communist Party and he handed over his position as state chairman, to a more moderate party representative. The, Xiao cui however, now Zidane continued, to work in a leading position in the government and tried to run his Great Leap Forward from, behind, the scenes instead, of recognizing, that his policy was doomed to fail Mao Zedong was convinced, that this was just bad.
Luck And, pressed the people to keep going however, people, just, continued, to die year. After, year, finally, in 1961. The Great Leap Forward it, was canceled by the time he finally ended the policy 36. Million people had died. You'd, think that after being responsible. For the deaths of millions of people and somehow, not, being killed for it you know, it was time to quit but, in 1966. Mao Zedong trying to regain the trust of the people and become state chairman once again he has a place to blame for his mistakes somewhere. Else he claimed that the bourgeoisie the top 1% of society, were ruining. Everything. And that now himself, he was on the side of the peasants he, builds up a cult of personality and, people they strongly, supported, him again because, well, they remembered, him as a revolutionary. Hero who saved their country from the Japanese, and provided, them with food, rations, and free, health care his followers they were willing to do whatever, he asked he, knew from his days as a college student that young people were perfect, for molding, into revolutionaries. He convinced a group of students called the Red Guard to seek out anyone, who was speaking out against the Communist Party he, encouraged, them to even murder their professors, who spoke against, Mao's policies just. In order to make an example of them according, to some accounts Mao's Red Guards were so savage, they partook in flesh, banquets, or ritualistic. Cannibalism. Of, their enemies Mao Zedong called the USSR. And North Korea traitor, revisionist. Who were bastardizing, the original work of calm Marx, his interpretation, of communism was so different from the rest of the world that many people called, his philosophy, maoism. Instead, of isolating his people from the outside world, like other communist nations he encouraged, globalization. And open trade which is why China's, economy eventually. Rebounded, and indeed this actually set the stage for the economic, strength that China has today in 1968. The Minister of Pakistan brought, a gift of 14 mangoes to, Chairman Mao people, of China never eaten tropical fruit before so this was a delicacy, to them now couldn't possibly forty, mangoes on his own so he handed out the fruit to his political team and a couple got, in the hands of a group of factory, workers they, were so mesmerized, by this magical, sweet fruit that they literally, started, to worship it saying that it was a symbol of the wonderful, new things the Chairman Mao would bring to their land they placed it in a glass case and when the fruit went bad they replaced it with a wax replica one, man who had never tried mango before questioned, why everyone.
Was Worshipping, this piece of fruit he tried to compare, it to a sweet potato he, simply couldn't believe that mangos, could taste so, great well, then it got a little bit ridiculous because even the mere suggestion. That a mango, wasn't, a magical, fruit was, enough to kill a man for treason this, is just one of many examples of, how irrationally. Devoted, to Mao Zedong people. Were in, the in 1970. When the country was running low on building, supplies Mao Zedong ordered his workers to tear down the Great Wall of China in order, to use the bricks to build new, houses and of dam he also destroyed ancient, artwork or anything else that was considered, to be a symbol of the bourgeoisie he, was willing to dismantle thousands. Of years of Chinese history and culture, in order to execute his communist, vision. When, he was getting older Mao Zedong was shameless, when it came to reaping the benefits of being a communist, dictator he almost never bathed or brushed his teeth and claims that he cleansed, himself inside. The bodies of his mistresses, not surprisingly, he contracted, sexually transmitted, infections, and spread them to several, women who actually. Wore their illness as something of a badge of honor since it was given to them by Chairman, Mao yep when. He was in his sixties he appointed a sixteen-year-old girl named Jiang Yu Feng to be his personal secretary she, spent so much time with him that even Mao Zedong's wife had to go through Jiang you thing first before she could make an appointment and, speak, with her husband, in 1973. He was sitting in a trade meeting with Henry Kissinger and, he reportedly, offered to trade 10 million, Chinese, women to the United, States he, said that women caused, too many problems and that it would be better to just get rid of them in 1974. His third wife the beautiful actress jiying, Jing decided. That she would not sit around waiting, for husband's respect, and affection she, began gathering her own collection of young male lovers she got so bold she would even allow her boyfriends, to show up at the house and now, never, protested, against her affairs when he died in 1976. People they, were devastated he was buried in a crystal casket, so that people could see his body when they came to visit lines, of people queued up to pay their respects, and many of them openly, cried, when they saw the body of their Dear Leader even, to this day the memory of Mao Zedong is revered by many as they remember, him as one of the great heroes, of the, nation but, love him or hate him China would be a very different place today if it was not for Mao Zedong maybe without him China, would have never become a leading economic, powerhouse, but, maybe without him millions, of people would, not have died so. Chairman now not exactly the chariot, of subjects that you know what can take the edge off his communist, ways well. A cocktail, and that's convenient because today's video is brought to you by shaker, and spoon now I'm not gonna mix up some cocktails, at work because I'm not Don Draper, so let's through the magic of television travel, Hyman hello, welcome to my home.
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