Logic | Philosophy Tube
Hi welcome to philosophytube. I teach people philosophy. I'm, moving, flats, this month and my last few videos have been absurdly. Long, so this time, let's cut to the chase i've been teaching philosophy, on youtube, for over seven years now and whilst i've gotten pretty good at explaining, specific, topics. There's one thing that i've struggled to teach and that's. How do, you, actually, do. A, philosophy. So, i thought it'd be a good idea, to, show you, how to take apart an argument and figure out what it's saying if you can master this it's going to be so, useful, for you because before i studied any of it i'd hear people say things in real life and i'd be like i know that's a lot of rubbish. But i can't express, why. And once you get the hang of it you'll be more articulate. More precise. You'll be able to write and speak better, and those are all great ways, to trick people into thinking that you have a personality. So here's how it's going to go down first of all i'm going to give you a speech, that contains. An argument. We are then going to go through that argument together and i will show you various, useful, concepts, along the way so by the end you'll be able to tell, how it all hangs together, or doesn't, hang together, as the case may be the speech i've chosen, is. From this. Catalans. War by sullust. Sullust was an ancient roman historian. Writing in about, the 40s, bc. So we're in a very interesting, transition, period. As the roman, republic. Collapses. And becomes. The empire. It's got big, prequel, trilogy, star wars energy i chose it because. You know. Moving, from one way of life. To a different one. Government, collapse. Political. Disintegration. It seemed, appropriate. This is a true story of a real guy a roman senator called catalin. Who tried, to. Launch a coup he tried to overthrow the government in the 60s. The 60s bc. And his plan was. To take advantage, of an economic, crisis. To get the people on his side. Raise an army. And then assassinate. The top guy, in rome, there are no emperors, yet we're pre-empire. The top guy is called the consul. They are elected, and this one's name is, cicero. There are actually two consuls who share the powers but the target. Is cicero. So. Catalan, raises his army he gets the people on his side. And then it all goes wrong, because the guys he sends to kill cicero. Botch it they get caught, the conspiracy, is uncovered, cicero, survives. Cataline, flees. But now the senator, on to him and there's this scene, in the middle where they've uncovered, the conspiracy, and caught these five, guys, and now they've got to decide what are we gonna do with them. And cicero. Gets up in the senate and he says, real quick. Vibe, check. But he says it in latin, obviously, so weilock's, name is reprehende. Vibrationis. And the vibe. In the room. Is kinda. Death, kill them kill them now no trial. No process, like and now. And this is a big deal. Because roman, citizens, are not supposed to be executed. They're supposed to be exiled. We don't just whack our own dudes, and we sure as hell don't whack elected, senators. This is like if. I don't know michael gove, got caught, planning to use the army to overthrow, boris johnson, and boris stood up in parliament was like okay lads plan is, we are all to go around michael gove's gaffe this afternoon and strangle him to death like. You're really crossing a line, here pal this is the most powerful people in society. Just giving themselves, permission, to commit murder, and all, of a sudden who stands up, but julius. Caesar. Very much the chancellor, palpatine, of this part of history, only 37, years old hasn't turned to the dark side yet but he gets up and he says don't, kill. These, dudes. But he says it in latin, so known, occides. These dudes, and he delivers, a very, famous, speech. Which i will give you now. Slightly. Modern. Whenever, anyone. Deliberates. Questions, of great importance, they should empty, themselves, of hatred. And friendship. And anger. And pity. When these, feelings. Get in the way it can be difficult, for the mind to see the truth, and nobody, has ever served his passions. And his best interests, at the same. Time. If. We use our intellect, it will prevail. But if passion, takes hold, it dominates. And the mind is useless, i remember. Senators, many occasions. When kings, and tribes, under the influence, of anger, or pity. Made bad. Judgments. But i prefer. To remind. You all. Of times, when our ancestors. Resisting, their passion. Acted, justly. And properly. During the macedonian. War. Which we fought against king perseus. The great and glorious, community, of the rhodians. Which had grown. Thanks to the people of rome. Was disloyal. And fought against, us. And after the war was over. And the question of what to do with the rhodians, was being deliberated. Our ancestors. Let them go. Unpunished. Lest somebody might say that it was the wealth of the rhodians. Rather, than, the resentment, for the wrong they'd done us which pushed us, to retaliation.
Likewise, Too in all the punic, wars, although the carthaginians. Both in peacetime. And when we were supposed to have a truce, did many abominable. Things, the romans. Never. Retaliated. When they had the chance. But instead, asked. What course of action befits. Our dignity. You. Senators, must likewise, beware. Of letting the guilt, of publius, lentils, and the rest. Sway, you. More than your own dignity. Of paying more attention. To your anger. Than your reputations. If, a punishment, can be found that fits their crime then i will change my mind. But if the enormity, of their guilt, simply beggars belief then i advise. That we limit, ourselves. To the punishments. That the law. Has set, down. Many of those. Many of those. Who spoke, before me expressed, their pity, for the commonwealth. In neat, and splendid, phrases, they dwelt upon the horrors. Of civil war. The wretched, fate of the conquered. The rape of maidens, and boys children. Snatched, from the arms of their parents, mothers subjected, to the will of the victor's. Homes, and temples, pillaged in short arms and corpses, everywhere, gore, and grief but by the gods what was the point, of such speeches. To incense, us against the conspiracy, oh naturally, a man who has not been moved by the monstrous, crime itself. Will be fired up when he hears speech about it no no, no one here believes, that the wrongs that have been done to us are unimportant. Some of us indeed resent them more than they should, but. But. Not all men. Senators. Have the same. Freedom, of action. If, the lowly. Who live their lives in obscurity. Commit some offense, through anger no one ever hears of it. Their fame is on the same level as their fortune, but for those, who wield great power. Who live their lives at the top. Their actions are known throughout all the world. And so it is that in the highest positions, there is the least. Freedom. Of action, neither partiality. Nor hatred, but least, of all. Anger. Is appropriate. What, in others, is called anger, in a ruler, is called arrogance. And cruelty. Now for my own part senators, i do not consider, any tortures.
To Be sufficient. For the crimes. Of these men but most people, remember, only that which happens, last. And in the case of heinous men if their punishment, is just a little bit too severe, people will remember the punishment, and not the crime. Now i have no doubt, that um. Decimal solanus. A brave man a gallant man. Was led, to. Recommend, summary, execution, out of patriotism. And that when it comes to such an important matter he would neither play favorites nor hold grudges so well, do i know the man's character and his honesty, and yet, his proposal, seems to me. Not cruel. For what could be too cruel in the case of such men but. Foreign. To our country. And its customs, for surely. Destiny solanus, it was either, fear. Or. Or. The severity, of their crime. Which, prompted you to recommend the ultimate, penalty. Now it's foolish to speak about fear. Because uh thanks to the precautions, of our distinguished, counsel. We have, the criminals. Under guard. But as far as the penalty is concerned, i think death would be a relief for these men. Not a punishment. It would remove all possibility. Of. Mortal ills all chances of joys and of sorrow. Oh but by the gods solanus. Why. Did you not. Say. That before they are executed, they should also be whipped. Was it because whipping them is against the law, well it is but there are also other laws, laws which say that a roman citizen should not be executed, even when found guilty, but should be given the opportunity, of exile. Why respect, the law in the lesser point when you've disregarded, it in the greater. Or was it because. Whipping them and then executing them would simply be too cruel, but again what could be too cruel in the case of such men. But. You may say. Who will complain. Of a sentence that is passed against. Traitors. Time. Is the answer. The passing. Of years. And fortune. Whose whims. Rule the world. Whatever happens to these men will be well deserved yes but you should consider, senators how your actions, will affect, other criminals. Every bad, precedent. Starts in good circumstances. And when the control, of this government. Is passed, to other men, who may be wicked. Or. Who may be incompetent. Your precedent, is likewise, transferred, from those who well deserve it to those who do not, the spartans. The spartans. He has a right to be. Heard. The spartans. When the spartans, conquered the athenians, they placed 30 men in charge of their government and to begin with they executed, without trial. Only the most wicked and hated citizens and everyone rejoiced. And said it was. Well done. And afterwards. They kept going. They executed, good men, and bad men alike, and terrorized. The rest. And athens was reduced to slavery. And they paid a heavy price. For their foolish, rejoicing. Within our own lifetimes. General sulla. When he ordered the execution. Of damascipius. And others who had grown, rich and powerful at the expense of rome's people who among us, did not commend that action. Everyone, said these criminals. They've, ruined the country with their rebellion, they deserve their fate. But that was the beginning of a disaster. Because pretty soon, whenever, anyone, desired, another man's, villa, or even his goblet or his clothes, he tried to have his name put on the execution, list and before long those who had cheered the execution, of damascipius, were themselves. Being led away to slaughter. And the massacre, did not end, until, i became a dictator. Now for my own part i don't fear anything of the sort, happening with our own. Marcus tullius, in our time. But. In a big country like this one senators there's all sorts of people. It is possible. That at some other time. When some other man, is console. And likewise. In command, of an army. That someone. Might tell a lie. And that someone. Might be believed. And when that. Console. With this. Precedent. Set before him draws his sword. Who's going to stand in his way. Our ancestors. Senators. Were never lacking, in either wisdom or courage but they were not too proud. To avoid working with foreigners, provided they were honorable, they took weapons from the sam knights they took their insignia, from the etruscans. In short, whatever they found agreeable. In either allies, or enemies, they put into practice, at home with enthusiasm. Preferring to imitate the successful. Rather than envy them but in that same time. Following the example of the greeks. They whipped. Their citizens. And they executed, them. And later when the country grew. And matured.
When Different factions, emerged. When innocent people started being killed and other wrongs of that nature were perpetrated. They changed. The law, to allow condemned, men the opportunity, of exile. This senator, seems to me to be a particularly, good reason why we, should not adopt a new policy for surely there was greater merit in those men who from tiny resources. Built, this mighty country, than there is in us who can scarcely, hold on to what they so gloriously. Won. So. Do i think that we should just let them go and swell, catalan's, army, no. Here is what i propose. Confiscate, their money. And imprison, them, in the strongest. Towns. We have and furthermore. Let no one speak of him again, on the pain of being considered, a traitor by this. Senate. I edited the speech slightly for clarity, if you're my old classics teacher mrs bridlington, please don't get angry with me if you didn't manage to follow all of it then don't worry, deconstructing, an argument is a skill, a little bit like reading comprehension. And apparently the best way to improve your reading comprehension. Is to start with a text that is just slightly above your level so you can test yourself in order to understand, the arguments caesar is making we can start by putting it into what philosophers, call. Standard. Form. We write it out as a series of numbered statements, point one point two point three conclusion, of course nobody in real life actually does this, the goal is that by seeing it done you will learn to do it almost, unconsciously. I've put the argument into standard form so that you don't have to and by my estimation, there are 33. Points, plus the big conclusion. There isn't really a correct, number here like you could probably split it up more, but i've split it up in ways that will allow me to show you some concepts, i think will be useful if you're analyzing, somebody's argument i find it's often useful to start at the end what is their conclusion. Then we can see how they try and reach it, i think caesar's conclusion here is pretty obvious, it is in rome's, best interests, to impose, exile on the conspirators. Rather than summary execution. So now we can ask how does he try and justify, this, because that's what logic and reasoning is all about we're trying to figure out what are we justified. In believing. I'll take you through his argument, and i'll point out some interesting features on the way, like a philosophy, tour guide. Hands and arms inside the vehicle everyone let's go point number one, making political, decisions, in anger, is likely to result in overzealous. Punishments. Number two, overzealous, punishments, are likely to result in people remembering, the punishment. Not the crime. Making political decisions, in anger, is likely to be called cruelty, and arrogance. Previous senates had cause to be angry. Previous senates, acted with restraint. For example against the rhodians, and carthaginians. Previous senates made good decisions. Therefore. Acting with restraint. Rather than out of anger, leads to good decisions.
Right There we've got our first. Six, points, they're called premises. And then we, take the next step. To a mini conclusion. Philosophers, call that, step. An inference. And we want to check, that each inference, is justified. There are two kinds of inference we need to know. Inductive. And deductive. Here's a really simple deductive. Inference, all dogs go to heaven, dan is a dog, therefore, dan goes to heaven, that's deductive, reasoning and it is. Bulletproof. If number one is true and number two is true then the conclusion. Must. Be true it is inescapable. And we would say that this argument, is. Valid, now try this one emphasize. All french people can play poker. James bond. Is french. Therefore. James bond can play poker. That is deductive, reasoning, this argument. Is, valid. If, the premises, are true the conclusion, must be, that's all valid means. But the premises, of course are not, true. Not all french people can play poker, and james bond, is not french as we all know. James bond is italian. Hey, michiama, bondini. James or bondini, i got the license to kill the m and mi6, it stands for meatball, my apologies. To, the nation of italy, for the offensive, caricature, of. One of your most, famous. Historical, figures, we would say, that this argument, is valid. But it is not, sound. A sound, argument, is one that is valid, and also. The premises. Are true. Bonus points. By sheer coincidence. The conclusion. Is. Actually, true, james bond, can. Play poker. But that doesn't mean this is a good argument, we would not be justified. In believing that james bond can play poker on the basis of this argument. If you ever get lost just remember what we're trying to do, is figure out whether the argument, justifies. Believing the conclusion, so check out that bit from caesar again, making political decisions in anger is likely to result in overzealous, punishments. Overzealous, punishments, are likely to result in people remembering the punishment, not the crime. Making political decisions, in anger is likely to be called cruel. Previous, senates had cause to be angry. Previous senates acted with restraint. Previous sentence made good decisions. Therefore. Acting with restraint. Rather than out of anger, leads to good decisions. That's, not, deductive, reasoning, the premises, could all be true and the conclusion, still false like. Maybe previous senates made good decisions, out of luck. Maybe, an angry political decision, won't be called cruel and arrogant, this time around for some reason we don't know. Caesar is using the other kind of inference here. Inductive. If the premises are true the conclusion, is, likely. But not certain, induction, isn't necessarily, a bad thing we do it all the time science. Is based on induction. The belief that the sun will rise tomorrow because it's risen every other day that's induction, the belief that your teeth, will stay intact, when you bite into a tasty sandwich and not shoot out of your skull or turn into marshmallows, that's all induction, point number eight, previous speakers, have highlighted, the horrors of the conspiracy. These speeches, could not have been meant to make us detest, the conspirators. Because we already do. Therefore. These speeches, must have been made, out of anger, again, this is inductive. Maybe the speeches were made for some other reason, senator, decimus, solanus. Argued for the conspirators. To be executed. Either he recommended, execution, because he was afraid, of what they might do. Or because, it was the most severe penalty, he could think of. Or. Because, he is angry. Caesar, doesn't, say that last bit out loud, i've had to fill that in, uncovering, the hidden premises, in real world arguments.
Is Kind of an art, you've got to figure out what must this person be assuming, in order for their argument to make sense, like why does caesar go from talking about anger. To suddenly talking about this guy decimus solanus. There's probably some kind of connection right so let's see where he's going with it senator desmos solanus, argued for the conspirators, to be executed. Either he recommended, execution, because he was afraid of what they might do, or because it was the most severe penalty he could think of or because he is angry. He cannot be afraid, since we have the conspirators, under guard. It cannot be the most severe penalty he can think of since summary, execution, would actually be a relief, not a penalty. Therefore. Desmos, solanus. Must have spoken, out of anger, so aha. We've got a warning. About not making political, decisions, in anger. And caesar is using this guy decimus solanus, as an example, of that. Whilst also trying not to make him look bad, that's why it went unstated. If you're very clever you'll have noticed that this little section is actually, deductive. Either he recommended, execution, because he's afraid. Or because it's the most severe penalty, or because he's angry, a b or c it isn't a it isn't b so it must, be c that's deductive reasoning, doesn't mean that it's sound. Maybe there's d e f and q that caesar isn't considering, but it is deductive, and valid, senator desmus, solanus, did not argue for the conspirators. To be whipped. Before, they are executed. Either he did not recommend whipping because it is illegal, and he cares about the law. Or because it is too cruel. Or. And again this is unstated. Because he is angry, and not thinking clearly. He cannot care about the law because summary execution, is also illegal. Nobody, can believe that any punishment, could be too cruel for these conspirators. Therefore, again. Senator desimona solanus. Must have spoken, out of anger, again, it's deductively, valid, and caesar is repeating himself a little bit here that's twice, now he's reached the mini conclusion, that desmos solanus, is majorly, pissed, he's used two different arguments, to reach the same point and here's where he's going with it mini conclusion. Summary, execution. Is a position, that is being considered. Out of anger. We're taking points 10 15, and 20 and combining, them here, can you see how the argument is starting to click together. We make some points we get a mini conclusion, we add those mini conclusions, and we see where they go now we can see why he argued for decimal celanus being angry, twice. The mini conclusion, he's trying to reach is that the senate as a whole, is only considering, execution. Because everyone's, pissed. If he'd only, argued, once, that one, guy, is pissed. Might not have carried it so he nails decimal solanus, down twice. And combines, it with the bit from before about other speakers, being angry too. Philosophers, would say that his premises, support the conclusion. Conjointly. On their own they're not so hot but together. Now we're cooking we're two-thirds of the way through now so let's push on to the end 22. Summary, executions. Have previously, led to innocent people being killed and other negative consequences. For example in athens when the spartans, took over and in rome under sulla. Rome, used to practice, summary executions. Which led to innocent people being killed. Therefore. Summary execution. In this case, is likely to lead to innocent people being killed and negative consequences. Huh. Seems. Like we made a bit of a jump there. And you might have noticed i labeled that mini conclusion, 25.. That's because there's a hidden. Unstated. Assumption. Here. 24. Our situation. Is similar, to those examples, in relevant, ways. And not, dissimilar. In any relevant ways, caesar is making an argument, from analogy, here he's saying executions, went wrong before. In athens. And in rome and they'll go wrong again now. And in order to do that, he has to assume that the situations. Can actually be compared. Like maybe. Things went wrong in athens for some other reason, maybe it wasn't the executions, maybe. Maybe the spartans executed, people in a particularly, brutal, way, and that was the real problem. But in order to make the comparison. Caesar has to assume that the analogy, works, which, is, inductive.
But Magnifying. Glass is out gang we're about to come across some more, unstated. Assumptions. 26. If we summarily, execute the conspirators, it will set a precedent, for future consoles to do likewise. If future consoles feel empowered to summarily, execute roman citizens, it is possible that innocent people will be killed. 28. Big unstated, assumption. The killing of innocent people. Would be made, likely, enough. By this precedent. That we should avoid. Setting it oh. That last one might not be true. Maybe executing, them would set a bad precedent. But there's some other factor, that means, that just won't be a problem we're on the home stretch now, and here's another, unstated, assumption, innocent people being killed and other negative consequences. Are against, rome's best interests, unstated. But probably not controversial. I'm sure most of the senators could agree to some, version, of that, so let's put this whole, section together, 26. If we execute the conspirators, it will set a bad precedent. If future consuls feel empowered to execute roman citizens they might kill innocent people, this is likely enough that we should avoid setting the precedent. Killing innocent people is against rome's best interests. Therefore. Summary execution, in this case is likely to be against, rome's best interests, and now i play polymerization. To combine, point 30 with 0.21. Therefore. Summary, execution. Is a recommendation. Made in anger. Likely, to be contrary, to rome's, interests. Nice. Nice. But in latin, obviously, so. Bonham. Bonham. But we're not done yet. Remember the big conclusion, is that caesar wants them exiled. Not killed. And he hasn't actually argued for exile yet, but we're pretty close to the end of the speech, this is like when a police show only has five minutes of the episode left but they haven't caught the killer it's time to start making some huge assumptions. 32. Imposing, exile, is a decision, made in restraint. Not anger. And, 33. Imposing. Exile. Is not, likely, to be contrary, to rome's, interests. Ooh. That last one's, kind of a big thing to just assume. Isn't it, maybe exiling, them will set a bad precedent, that, rome doesn't have the cojones, to stand up to a coup maybe they'll escape their exile and try again we don't know caesar, is sailing, dangerously. Close here to what philosophers, call. Begging, the question. That's when you assume. The very thing that you are supposed to be proving, it's a kind of circular, reasoning. In this case caesar assumes. That exile won't be a bad idea. When that's like. Half, of your ultimate conclusion, dog. You should really be trying to prove it here's another quick example of begging the question. Murder is wrong, therefore, abortion, is wrong. This argument doesn't work there's a hidden unstated, assumption. Abortion. Is a kind of murder. Murder, means. Wrongful, killing. So, this argument is actually assuming. That abortion, is wrong, when that is the very thing that is in contention, here. That is just an example try not to get too bogged down in it in my personal experience, begging the question is often used to disguise, the fact that what you're really basing your argument on is the threat of violence. Like if you've ever been, arrested. Or had an argument with a police officer. You will know that it is absolutely. Maddening. It's like talking to a brick wall, because they routinely, beg the question. They have this, cop speak where they try and look like they're justifying, what they're doing but it's just a script they either cannot or will not actually have a rational conversation, with you and if you challenge them to explain, the reasoning, behind. Why they're doing what they're doing. They will often get cognitive dissonance, they get very angry and sometimes even violent, because they assume. As a rule. That everything they do is okay. Even when that. Is the very thing that they are supposed to prove by the way begs the question is not to be confused, with prompts, the question, the fact that i just used that example, might prompt, the question, have i been arguing with police recently, but it does not beg the question but let's get to julius caesar's big conclusion we're gonna take points 31, 32, 33. And. Point number seven, you forgot all about him chekhov's gun here he comes, we're gonna make an inductive, inference. Too, it is in rome's, best interests, to impose exile, on the conspirators. Rather than summary, execution, boom, there it is, as an actor i can't help but imagine, the scene. From this speech, like, the fact that he, puts decimal, solanus, under the spotlight, twice.
Might Suggest something about their relationship. The fact that his big conclusion. Relies, on a couple of massive, unstated, assumptions, that come very fast, close to the end, suggests, to me, that he cares, more about preventing, the execution. Rather than the exile stuff he spends most of his time on that which also suggests, that the vibe. In the room must be pretty bloodthirsty, if he's having to spend that much time trying to counter it. So i i, love, analyzing, acting speeches like this it's like being sherlock holmes it's great you may have spotted that caesar, doesn't make his argument, in this neat progression. He jumps around a lot he repeats, himself there's those big unstated, assumptions. But remember, his goal is to. Persuade. Not to lay out his argument, in the most logical, way possible. There's the argument. But then there's everything else, which we call, rhetoric. And that can make, all the difference although apparently. Not in this case cause. The senate did not listen to caesar. And, those dudes, were immediately, strangled, to death. You win some you lose some and that my friends is how you take apart an argument, start with the conclusion. Work your way back separate the inferences, from the rhetoric, and figure out the unstated, assumptions. Piece, of, piss. Use, these powers, wisely. I have to go and pack so that i can move flats, you will now immediately. Forget, all of this. It will slide, off your short-term, memory, like water off a duck's bottom. But the next time you hear a politician, make a speech, or you read an article, you'll be like hey. There's something i'm supposed to remember. And that something, is. That james, bond is italian. With the fucking motive, pouring coffee, in the cup to run the fucking motor, i think the car builds a lot of just about jehovah's. Still they act like knowing how they use it to get over, but for them it's all the same as it is for the rest, running in circles, are nothing but of all the stress, thick my reads are dripped and flipped to a fourth dimension. Lots of reasons, to hide but four dimension. Think i'm more than just the shell but hell don't agree, i think that god is dead, took belief in me, narrative, but i got mad at fables. No damn cat. No damn cradle. Too many colors, in this life for me to see a path, some i thought trapped in the mirror screaming free at last made a cross i made christ laugh, death site stabbed, i tried to fuck with montana, wild hag with damn, why does everybody, think their links have plans. Is there a truth i can understand. I wanna be a part of something, but applauded, by the heads up all dying, at random, nice thoughts nice thought of hearing like a phantom. Nice thoughts nice thoughts all i do is fear him i watch i watch people from a tower cause i don't want them. Breathing the smoke, trying. There's nothing here for me i'd rather be across there i know wherever, i go i'm taking trouble with me but this bubble about to pop if i don't get outside this fucking city, sick of using travel as a metaphor, i had to define, places, in my mind and find spaces, length of time because i'm disgracing.
Graceful, Earth but laying low in the beg for sun, summer pray for snow there we go another cycle bursting popping like this earth was rotten, really i'm the moldy homie like the only option is to light my head on fire, but the light is out there available. Higher please open up to me, show your potency, turn painful, and it's shameful. Begging angel grow with me but don't take control. Till the day that i can recline. In the shade, no limit as i give and return my heart to the day. So what you wanna say do you want another tax do you wanna stay do you wanna stay. So what you wanna say do you want another, tax do you wanna stay do you wanna stay. Sadness. Happiness. All in this array. Order, of the things. I know so, many. I, am, the senate.