Leon Trotsky - Communism's True Believer
This video is made possible by brilliant. You're gonna learn more about brilliant, later in today's video but if you'd like to learn more about them right now got a brilliant a talk /pi graphics, you'll also find a link in the description below. Leon. Trotsky was a man of thought and action his dream of a utopian, society built. On Marxism, it crumbled, around him yet he never gave up on his ideals when he was sidelined by, the power-hungry Josef Stalin he wielded, his pen to expose, the despot to the world knowing, full well that in doing so he, was signing his own death warrant in today's by graphics we discover the man who, was Leon. Trotsky. The. Man who is known to history as Leon Trotsky, was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein. On November, the 7th 1879. His parents, David and Anna were farmers in the Ukrainian village of Yankovic, David had built himself up from nothing to become one of the most successful farmers. In the entire region Lev was the fifth child born to the Bronstein's, during his first eight years he was kept on the farm and instructed, by his parents the language they spoke was a mixture of Russian, and Ukrainian then at the age of eight he was sent to a private Ukrainian, Jewish school in Odessa, in Ukraine Lev struggled during his first year at school as he was not familiar with the vernacular, of Jewish, Yiddish that was spoken in time, though he improved and he proved himself to be a very capable students, he quickly learned to speak Russian and he fell in love with Russian literature after two years at the private school Lev was transferred, to a state-run. Russian. School as in Paul's high school he excelled to be one of the top students however he proved to be an independent, thinker which sometimes. Led, to run-ins with his teachers his reading of such intellectual giants like Leo Tolstoy gave, him the knowledge to challenge, things that the other students accepted, about the order of society which caused, frustration for, his long-suffering, instructors. Graduating. From school at the age of 17 Lev moved to the Ukrainian, port town of Nikolaev close to the Black Sea he lived with two relatives, swarley decided, what he wanted to do with his life nikolai, of at that time was a center, of revolutionary.
Descent And the teenage life soon began to mingle with the radical, crowd. Within. A few months of arriving in nikolayeva lev met a young woman by the name of alexandra. Sokolovskaya, she was six years older than Levin's well versed in revolutionary, leftist, politics Lev later recalled that he was attracted to Alexandra, because she was the only person who was able to defeat, him in a debate the subject at issue was Marxism, and whether it would be the best thing for Russian society Lev argued against it was every, arguments, that he made was deftly, destroyed, by the wit and the wisdom of Alexandra, love he found himself falling in love with her but hardly before the relationship could get established he was thrown in jail the cause of his imprisonment in January, of 1898, was his involvement in a demonstration, of striking, union, members over the next two years he was irregularly, thrown in jail for short. Spells as a result, of his involvement in public demonstrations. In 1911. Alexandra. They were married shortly after the wedding Alexandra, was banished, to Siberia, for four years as a result of her own radical, activities. A new husband though he, went right along with that they ended up in the Siberian village of oast caught over the next two years they eat out a living in this cold and harsh terrain the couple also had two children girls, named, Sanada, and Nina after, two years of this exile, Lev had already had enough he, was ready to make his escape by now his wife had fully converted, him to Marxism, communism. And he was determined to get out of this purgatory and become active in the revolutionary, cause it was a resolve that Alexandra, would remain, in Siberia, with the two young children. Let. Travel to the Irkutsk, region of, Siberia there, it got ahold of a stolen Passport, it was then that he assumed his new name scribbling, it's on the pages of the fake passport, Leon, Trotsky, he made his way to London eager to learn at the feet of the founder of Russian Marxism, Vladimir, Lenin the two men developed an immediate bonds Lenin took Trotsky, on as his apprentice setting, him to work as a writer for his communist, newspaper Iskra, within a couple of months of his arrival, Lenin sent him out on a fundraising, and publicity tour of Europe to promote the newspaper as well as the Communist cause on, the Paris leg of the tour he met a young woman by the name of Natalya Sedova despite, still being married to Alexandra. He and Natalya soon became man and wife she, returned, with him to London and they set up house there no long after his return from Europe Trotsky, attended, the second Congress of the Democratic, Workers Party in London the main topic of discussion, was the recent, split in the Russian Communist Party between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks were the more moderate, of the two factions, who envisions, a gradual, transition to communism, the Bolsheviks, however they were far more radical they, intended to dismantle, the current system immediately and replace, it with full-on.
Communism. They were fully prepared to stage violent, uprising, in order to achieve, their means the, names of these factions, they tell us about their levels of support the, Menshevik, means men, of the minority, while Bolsheviks, translates, to men of the majority nothing, was in favor of the Bolsheviks, at the Congress meeting he explained, the Bolsheviks needed to create a centralized, power structure, from which they could control and direct the common people this idea it was very troubling, to Trotsky, who saw it as a replacement of the type of capitalist, control, of the masses that they were trying to get rid of for many years after that he continued. To try and bridge the divide between the Bolsheviks, and the, Mensheviks. In. 1905. Russia suffered a humiliating defeat, against, the Japanese in the Battle of Tsushima they'd, left the Russian economy in ruins, and led to mass demonstrations. On January the 22nd, 1905, the peaceful demonstration, gathered outside of Tsar Nicholas Winter. Palace Nicholas reacted, by sending, in the cavalry the demonstrators, were routed with hundreds. Being killed in the street the people they were outraged, in the Bolshevik ranks however celebrations, began to occur they saw this as the spark that would bring, on the great Communist revolution, over, the following months protests, grew larger, morphing into the general, strike of October, 1905. Over, that period of time the Bolsheviks, they were busy, organizing the resistance, both Lenin and Trotsky had, relocated. To San Petersburg Trotsky began organizing, special workers assemblies these groups were designed to take control of regions that were to be governed, by a workers council the Russian word for council will, out be Soviet Trotsky, set up the first Soviet, in San Petersburg, with him serving as its chairman in short order the region was surrounded, by the Tsarist, army and Trotsky, was taken into captivity he, was held in prison, for nearly a year before being put on trial defending, the charge of leading the armed rebellion, Trotsky, gave an impressive speech in which he laid out all the benefits of Marxism, all of this was in vain however as he was convicted and he, was exiled once again to, Siberia. Trotsky. Determined, that there was no way that he was going back to that Siberian, wilderness. In. January, of 1907, he escaped, while being transported, to his place of banishment for, a second time he headed off to London within weeks though he had relocated to Vienna in Austria it was there that he started working for the communist propaganda newspaper. Pravda. Financing. The ongoing, publication, of Pravda was a constant, challenge in 1909, Trotsky, requested, that the Bolshevik, Central Committee inject, funds to keep the paper going Lenin, now at the head of the Bolsheviks, agreed but only on the condition that a Bolshevik be put in place as assistant, editor this means that the moderate views which Trotsky, had managed to infuse into the paper were no, longer going to be acceptable, from 1910, onwards Pravda, became the mouthpiece of Bolshevik. Communism, tensions, between the Bolsheviks, and the Mensheviks they continued, to cause division in 1912. Lenin instigated, a purge to remove, the moderate voices Trotsky, remains in opposition to the more radical actions, of the Bolsheviks, such as armed robberies of banks to finance, the party he organized a unification conference. To bring the factions together but. It was a failure. Throughout. 1912, Trotsky wrote for a number of radical Russian and Ukrainian, newspapers, in September, of that year he was sent on assignment to cover the balkan war when, World War one broke outs he moved from Austria to Switzerland, and then to Paris from, his base there he wrote anti-war, diatribes, in which he describes, the injustice, of, the workers of the world who were being forced to kill each other at the beckoning, of their rulers the French governments they were not impressed with this anti-war stance and their Trotsky deported, on March 31st.
1916. Trotsky. He went to Spain birds his writings, led to deportation, from that country as well, he, ultimately ended up in the United States he arrived in New York on January the 13th 1917. He settled into a small, room in the Bronx and began writing for several, Russian newspapers, a month after his arrival in the US Trotsky received the news that Tsar Nicholas had been overthrown he decided to return, in order to play his part in the history that, was unfolding on, March the 27th, 1917. Trotsky sailed from New York Harbor on board the SS Christiana. Fort however, the ship was intercepted by the British Navy at Halifax Nova Scotia and, Trotsky was held in an internment camp for a month through, the intervention of the Russian Foreign Minister he was released, and he was able to continue on to Russia now, just before we get into the very important, October Revolution I do want to tell you a bit about brilliant, brilliant art a science learning platform that allow you to learn through active, learning, basically summed, up this is the opposite of that feeling where you read a really complex, paragraph, about some principle, and then you've just got no, clue what, on earth is going on even if you've read it through ten times you're still like huh. Anyway. And brilliant don't just teach you the basics, although they do cover that as well they go all the way to complex, things like differential. 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Government was put into place until a more permanent government, could be established, Trotsky arrived, in San Petersburg, on May the 17th 1917. He soon became the popular speaker at town halls and factories, as the various political elements, vying for power his catchphrase embodied, the three tenets of his revolutionary. Vision distrust. The bourgeoisie control. Our own leaders and have confidence, in our, revolutionary. Forces the, Bolsheviks, they struggled, for more radical, changes, than the state government, or Duma envisions, Trotsky, aligned himself with the Bolsheviks, he was arrested on August the 7th for his involvement in a Bolshevik demonstration. They spent 40 days in prison it's probably used to that at this point on, October, the 8th with the Bolshevik support gaining ascendancy, Trotsky, was voted governor of the San Petersburg Soviet, for a second time by the end of the year the provisional, government's it had failed it was superseded, by the Bolsheviks, with Lenin, at the head the second most powerful man was. Leon Trotsky. An. Immediate. Focus for the Bolshevik, government was to get Russia, out of the war this, task was handed to Trotsky, along with the title of people's commissar, for Foreign Affairs on December, the 2nd 1917. The Bolsheviks signed ceasefire with the allied Central, Powers of Germany, austria-hungary. And turkey talks then began between Trotsky, and the central power delegates, to work out an armistice, agreement, the Germans in particular they drove a hard bargain they demanded that the Russians give up their claim to Ukraine Poland Lithuania as well as parts of Latvia, and Bella Russia Trotsky. Was taken, aback by the demands, but he also knew that he had little choice, the Bolsheviks had campaigns on a platform of getting Russia out of the war and all of Russia was essentially demanding, that Trotsky, he related the demands to Lenin adding that he felt they had no choice but to agree then, and he was of the same opinion but, when the rest of the Bolshevik government heard the demands they, were infuriated, they managed to convince both Trotsky, and Lenin not.
To Sign the armistice, in the end Trotsky simply decided, to pull out of the hostilities, without, the benefit of an armistice agreements he explains we declare we end the war but will not sign a peace they will be unable to make an offensive against us if they attack us our position will be no worse than now, it, was a gamble that Trotsky, would immediately, regret, On February the 18th 1918. Austrian, and German forces they invaded Russia they found the borders completely, undefended on, hearing the news Trotsky he was dumbfounded he sent a message to the German ambassador stating, we request clarification of, this misunderstanding. But there was no misunderstanding the very next day Trotsky, was commanded, by Lenin, to accept, the original German, conditions, for the armistice. With. Russia now out of the war Trotsky was made commander-in-chief, of, the Russian armed forces a, crisis, occurred when the Czechoslovak, legions, returning, from the war revolted, against the Bolshevik governments the resistance, grew and what became known as the white army when he heard that the outpost of Kazan had fallen to this opposition Trotsky, hopped on a train and headed for the area to assess the situation for himself his train only made it part of the way before he was forced and turned back but before they could get out of town the White Army forces that surrounded. Trotsky's contingent, for 25 days they were forced, to fend off the assault until they were finally able to break out and returned, to San Petersburg, with, the white army challenging, them from the East the Baltics also faced pressure from, the north as a finish group known as the white guard sought to rescued, Tsar Nicholas and his family, from captivity the group were on the verge of taking control of the town of yet Ehrenberg which is where the royal family were being held captive then, the order came through to kill the entire royal, family, with, this terrible deed done the Bolsheviks were ousted from, the town however the white guards, they were simply, too late to save Nicholas or his family at.
The Beginning of 1919. Russia it was in a state of crisis civil, wars had wracked the country, hands now disease famine, and poverty, decimated. The population meanwhile. European powers, hovered around like, vultures ready, to devour, the Russian corpse by, October the White Army had almost total, control and were pressing, at the gates of some Petersburg the Soviet government ordered, a full-scale, retreat from the capital but Trotsky, he strongly disagreed, he rallied his supporters, to resist, to the very last man trotsky's, bravery, persistence, and strong personality, turns the tide the Soviet forces dug, in and managed, to push back the white army some Petersburg was safe and the tide of the Civil War it began to change in favor of the Bolsheviks, by the end of 1920, the White Army had been concentrated. In Siberia, the Soviets had survived to see off their enemies and cement their leadership however in May of 1922, their, leader and visionary, Vladimir, Lenin in a massive stroke, Trotsky would have seemed to have been the natural successor however there was another member of the Bolshevik power structure, who had other ideas and, his, name of course was. Joseph Stalin. Joseph. Stalin was a street fighter and a thug who would cajole his way into becoming the general secretary of the Soviet Union by the time that Lenin died the, position it didn't hold any real power with all of his actions being controlled by the executive, committee or the police of Euro by the end of 1922, Lenin, had recovered sufficiently to send a note to the politico, giving his thoughts on his successor. He stated that Trotsky, was a stronger personality than Stalin but that he was too prone to acting unilaterally without. Consulting the rest of the council as for, Stalin he considered him to be too rude too ruthless, and too intolerant, Lenin, held on until January, the 21st, 1924. During, that time it became clear to Stalin, that the dying leader favoured Trotsky over him this, led him to embark on a ruthless, campaign to, discredit Trotsky, he claimed that Trotsky, was trying to cause divisions, within the party by trying, to push out the old guards in favor of younger members who were more inclined to his will, Stalin managed have a book that Trotsky, had written in 1923, banned, from sale as being anti Leninist even though it, was nothing, of the sort the open and constant, criticisms, of Trotsky resulted, in the loss of his two offices as chairman, of the war council and people's, commissar, of war, and Navy after spending almost all of 1925, without a job Trotsky was recalled in 1926.
And Given three roles however, Stalin, interfered so much that he resigned from two of them only retaining the position of chairman, of the concessions, committee. But. Stalin was, not through with Trotsky, yet on November the 12th 1927. He had him expelled from the Communist Party and then, axon to Kazakhstan, three, months later he was completely banned from living in the Soviet Union Soviet guards they forced, him onto a train and would not tell him where he was going after going on a hunger strike he, was finally informed, that he was headed for Turkey this enraged, Trotsky, who was convinced, that the anti-communist, regime there would haven't, executed, immediately he sends a message to the Central Committee requesting, a change of heart but, there was no response surprisingly. Though the Turks they treated Trotsky with the greatest respect he was given a home to live in with his wife and his Harley Ahrens their son Lev from, his new base he began writing about the situation, within the Soviet Union and specifically, the failings of Stalin he didn't talk back writing the following in an article titled what is Stalin, his political horizon is extremely, narrow he has the mentality of a dogged empiricist, devoid, of creative. Imagination these. Writings were published in newspapers, around the world knowing. What we do now about Stalin's, personality, it is a wonder that he didn't have Trotsky, killed immediately but to have done so would have been to bring the condemnation of the world down on Stalin, as a result he sought to shut him up by sending him deeper into exile, the Turks received orders to remove, Trotsky, to the island, of print Copiah after, a year there he managed to get political asylum in France the, French would not allow Trotsky to live in Paris so he settled in the coastal community of Rio he spent almost two years there but then French Soviet, relations improved, and the government, was pressured to deport him for a year he stayed in Norway with journalist, Konrad Knudsen while there he wrote the revolution, betrayed which further highlighted, the failings of Joseph Stalin a furious, Stalin pressured the Norwegian government and, Trotsky, was once.
Again Deported, he and his wife and son they now headed for Trotsky's final destination, of New Mexico for just over two years from January 1937, to April of 1939. They lived with artists, Diego, Rivera and Frida Kahlo during, that time Trotsky, had an affair with Frida even though his wife and son were also, living under the same roof in April of 1939. The Trotsky's moved into their own home a few streets away from Diego, and Frida it was here that he, wrote his strongest attack on Stalin yet, article was titled, Hitler and Stalin, in it he wrote about Stalin's hypocrisy, and signing a non-aggression, pact with Hitler it stated over the last three years Stalin. Has labeled every one of Lenin's comrades-in-arms. Agents, of Hitler having destroyed, the army party and decapitated. The army Stalin, is now openly advancing, his candidature, as Hitler's, chief agents. By. Now Trotsky, was convinced, that Stalin would soon silence him on February 27th, 1940, he wrote Trotsky's Testaments, in which he defended himself as a loyal party member in the mid 1940s Trotsky's house was swarmed, by members, of the Russian secret police the NKVD. Trotsky's guards managed to fight them off by following, the failed assassination attempt. Trotsky wrote an article titled, Stalin, seeks my death on June, the 8th 1940. In which she stated that another assassination, attempt was absolutely. Certain a month later on August the 20th 1940, a man walked into Trotsky, study and buried. An icepick into, his head Trotsky, did not die immediately though rather he fought the attacker until his bodyguards, were able, to come in and subdue him Trotsky, was rushed to the local hospital according, to James P Kanin the secretary, of the Socialist Workers Party in the USA trotsky's last words were I will not survive, this attack Stalin. Has finally, accomplished, the task he attempted, unsuccessfully before. He. Died the next day. So. I really hope you found that video interesting, if you did please do give us a thumbs up below and don't forget to subscribe we've got brand new videos just like this several days a week so hit that subscribe button to find out about those if you're looking for something else from me I've got another channel called top tens you will find that linked, to below and, as, always thank. You for watching.