Joan of Arc: The Maid of Orléans
Just port you get started I do want to say that there's going to be a lot of French pronunciations. In this one indeed the character. Of this, video, is Joan of Arc I'm going with the accepted, English pronunciation of, her name if you wanna have a go at me in the comments ya can. She's. One of history's youngest. Warriors at an age when most of us were stressing, out about what to wear to school Joan, of Arc was leading, thousands, of French troops into battle against the English supposedly. Inspired by, divine visions, of Catholicism's. Greatest, Saints Joan first took up her sword at age 16, she was leading armies by 17, and she was burned at the stake before. She was even 20 in a short life she managed to change the course of the Hundred Years War ending. English domination of France certainly. Not bad for a literate, girl from the sticks but while most of us know the name Joan of Arc and know her tragic, ends how much do we actually know, about her life well, join us today as we take a look at the simple peasant, girl who changed. European, history before, dying, alone, and disgraced. Convinced. That she was a failure. We. Don't know today the exact, date of Jones birth all we know is that it was sometime, in 1412. - a farming, family of some, means now, some means here is definitely, a relative, term, Jones village of Domremy in northeastern, France was shockingly, port still, her father Jean, managed to scrape together 50 acres of farm lands and the family lived in the biggest house in the town for young joan life in domine mince a life of sewing and taking care of animals as a girl in medieval Europe no one taught her to read and, write or to other manly, things they, did teach her how, to pray though Joan's mother Isabelle Romney, was a devout Catholic and how devout was she well there's evidence Isabelle, may have made a pilgrimage to Rome earlier, in life a crazy, feat for a woman living at a time when traveling, three villages over meant a day's riding, and the knowledge that you might be killed by bandits, but his vault lived in a time when public devotion, afforded, a woman a certain level of respect that was not found elsewhere early, 15th century France, was filled with female visionaries, who it was taken as fact could communicate, with God while, Isabelle herself, never claimed to be a mystic, she likely told, young Joan all about these women still, Joan's early life was relatively, uneventful she became a master seamstress, she worked, on her dad's farm she made, a handful of friends had, she been born at a different time it's doubtful we'd be talking about her at all heck it's doubtful, those in Domremy, would have even remembered, her but Joan, wasn't, born at any time she was born in 1412. In northern France in northern France in 1412, was a place in the grip of a destructive, conflict, Joan of Arc had been born slap-bang, in the middle of the Hundred Years War. The. Hundred Years War could win awards, for the least accurately, named historical, events in fact it was a series, of wars between England, and France and it lasted 116.
Years Not, a hundred now, normally what would do is we'd mention the Hundred Years War and we'd just move, on but Joan of Arc's life was so short, and so tied, up in the Hundred Years War that would have to keep halting, the narrative every two seconds, just to stop, you from going, what's. Going on Simon, so like a fun Pixar short here is our quick biography, of the 100, Years War that was not a hundred years and wasn't really a single war so, 1066. The Norman King William, the Conqueror earns his nickname by conquering, England crucially. He retained his claim on the French throne as did his descendants, nearly, 300. Years later in 1328. King Charles the fourth of France he dies this, was, super good news for Williams descendant, Edward the third who, was next in line for the throne so. This point you probably think well I good news Edward gets two countries right well, no, instead, the French crowns local, noble Philip the sixth Oh while blowing raspberries. Across the channel at England's, fed up with all of these Frenchie's taunting, in his general direction Edward. Went to war with France in 1337. By 1360, everyone, was tired of warring and Edward accepted a trunk of northern France in return for abandoning, his claims to the throne so. The warring it stops, until. Thirteen eighty when, the French crowned crazy Charles, the sixth a guy who genuinely, believed, that he was made of glass Charles. The sixth was so incapable of ruling that he created a power vacuum in 1407, the French houses of all Aeon and burgundy, actually went to war to fill it the House of Burgundy, by the way that's, the name you're going to want to remember. So, a year after Joan was born in 1413. Henry v was crowned king of England, desperate, to revive his claim to the French throne Henry demanded, to marry one of Charles the sixes daughters, the French in response that were pretty much like nah that's not happenin and England's and France they went to war yet again, but, this time the House of Burgundy, allied with the English this led to the Treaty of tois in 1420. When the English and burgundy ins not only booted, the French up their backsides. But made, off with their pantaloons, to the treaty was humiliating. For France alongside other stuff it said things up so Henry would inherit, the French throne when Charles, died but, then Henry made the mistake of dying just before Charles also died technically, making Henry's 10 month old son Henry the sixth king of both, nations, the French decided that being ruled by a baby was just a bit ridiculous, so they made Charles of Valois King. Instead, and yes, we return to that old classic French play of screw the Treaty and blow raspberries, across the channel only, the English they, were no longer across the channel but they were occupying the north of France then included not only Paris, but also rancer, City where Charles of Valois had, to be crowned to be recognized, as king so that's where things were by 1425. The English and the Burgundian said everything, above the Loire River while Charles of Valois stood. To the South unable to become King until he made it to Ross it would take a miracle to break this deadlock and ends this near century, of conflicts. Luckily, though miracles, were Joan of Arc was all about. Vistas. Charles of Valois was, sulking around wishing, he could be king young Joan of Arc was having an extremely spooky. Experience. Now aged 13 Joan's life in Durham II was much the same as it was when we last left her but there was one major, difference as she reached puberty Jones started having visions of some Catherine's, and Margaret of Antioch and some Michael, now first these visions they simply told her to lead, a pious, life and remain, a virgin but as time passed they started, telling her you, know actually.
How About you become a warrior and he put Charles of Valois on the throne that sounds pretty good right now, as I said earlier female visionaries they weren't uncommon, in France but that doesn't mean that people took them seriously, the other kids they certainly, laughed, at Joan's visions, but the visions they persisted, until one day in May of 1428. When Joan was 16 the Saint suddenly, told her to go to see Charles in she know now this was a bit of a problem the war had left steadfastly. Pro Charles, Domremy completely, surrounded. By hostile. Burgundy, and territory, which in on around 500 kilometers away any journey Joan undertook on her own would likely have ended up with her debt so, Joan didn't even try instead, she went to the nearby pro-child, stronghold, of Vancouver, there, she found the garrison, commander Robert, at Bari Corps and she demanded that he send her to the rightful king, Robert Bao Recor responded, by throwing her out on her ear we're not joking here he actually told Joan to make sure that her father gave her a good beating spurns. Joan went back to Domremy presumably. Muttering, obscenities, the, rest of 1428, it passed rather slowly in Domremy Joan's, father tried to marry her off only for Joan to successfully, argue in court that should taken a vow of chastity and, must, remain single throughout the proceeds Joan kept on talking about her visions to the point that the news began to seep out to other villagers there are even stirrings, that she might be the Virgin prophesized, to lead France to victory over England, eventually, the rumors they reached the Burgundian forces they responded, by sacking, Joan's, village now remember, here the house of Burgundy, it was allied with England the last thing they wanted was some prophetess. Saying Charles of Valois should. Be the king if the sacking was meant to be a warning though it had the opposite effect in January, of 1429, Joan returned, to Van cooler that she rode, word of her visions spread by the time she reached Robert Vadra core she was a minor celebrity and, Patrick, or noticed, when, drone repeated, her demand to see Charles Madrick or unexpectedly, agreed, he gave Jones six armed men as an escort and pointed her in the direction of tional, and just like that Joan, of Arc was off to see the king. Now. II guess you're probably wondering, right now well why did Baudricourt changes, mind something it was just to get this pushy peasant, off his back others think though that had, taken note of the burgundy and sacking Jones village, and realized there must be something to her but, there is a more likely explanation by. Early 1429 the French they were desperate, the news of the war coming in could not be worse the English in the burgundians were running, riot in the north while French forces were bankrupt and low and morale worse, back in October of 1428, the English had laid siege to the vital, town of ah Lian word was only always about to fall when it did the game it would be over for the French all of this may be why on February the 13th 1429. Joan, and her guard of six men were allowed to ride out of Vancouver and, into the unknown we really can't stress just how dangerous, this was Joan, was a girl riding, into lawless, territory it doesn't take much to imagine what certain men might have done to her thankfully, don't realized, this before setting off she cut her hair short and began, dressing in men's clothes there's, evidence that it was more than just to disguise during, her ride to Shannon Joan adopted, the habits of the six men that she was with she, slept alongside them she dressed with them she acted, like one of the boys it's, something she'd do while serving in Charles's army and it's likely the key to the respect that and then had for her eleven, days after setting off Jonah nor entourage they finally, arrived at Shin on the stories of what happened next they're the stuff of legends, Charles, refused to admit this strange girl for two days before finally, testing, her by hiding, among his entourage and calling for her the moment she entered the room Joan, who couldn't possibly have seen him before strode, straight, up to Charles and declared, that she'd been charged by God to lift the siege on Ollie or and make, him King it was an impressive display and, one probably matched in the private, meeting that the two of them had although we can't say for sure because no, records, of this survived. What we can say is that Charles emerge, from the meeting ready to give Joan a chance this, was not only to go to on Leon but also to put her case to the church authorities the, idea was to convince them that God was really, working through her over the next three weeks Joan fielded questions from a barrage of theologians. She answered, with remarkable. Frankness, when asked to prove her abilities, she told them to send her to Allianz so that she could prove herself by, lifting the siege eventually.
The Theologians, must have figured it was a worthy shot because they told Charles to roll with it in April of fourteen twenty nine Charles. Agreed it's, a move that could have ended his crumbling, regime I mean imagine the propaganda, fake, Kings ends, deluded girl to die in battle but, dying it only on it didn't even cross Joan's, mind she, knew that God was on her side and she was about to prove it. All. The time Joan was trying to convince Charles to send her to oli or her legend was growing, we know this because the French army was so broke that Charles was relying on volunteers but when he put out a call that basically said hey he was to go with this crazy, girl and died defending a random City thousands. Of men they actually responded, it was the first sign of the almost mystical, loyalty, that Joan was able to command on April the 29th, 1429, Joan and a new army arrived at the siege of alia Joan was riding, atop a white horse sir Christian, banner held high with, some quick diversionary work they gained access to the city expecting, to be heralded, saviors. Instead. They found a city on, the brink of collapse Oh, Leo was at that time under the control of a man literally, called the bastard, of Ollie all while, the title referred to his parentage, it could have been used in our modern sense, the bastard, he loathed Joan. He was gearing up to surrender and didn't need some jumped-up, peasant, telling him that God was gonna save them he locked Joan out of meetings and refused to give her any role it was a move designed to get rid of her but it was also a move that failed to recognize, one important. Point all of the new troops from Shannon were loyal, to Joan and the rank and file of only are they were already, turning, to her side on may the 4th Joan was resting, when she suddenly had another vision telling her to attack the English she grabbed her sword and banner and raced, out of the city to the east just as the French were beginning an assault on a fort the sight of God seemingly coming to their side rallied, the French as Joan, plunged, into the thick of the battle they, began, to fight Hart the fort fell and the next day another, and another. By, the time May the 7th dawned the French had done the impossible that, broken. The siege all, that remained was to make a last assault on the English and all er would, be saved in the early hours Joan, led her army into, battle again by now the English were aware of the spooky girl who made the French fight like lions when, the archers saw her raise a banner they took aim the, arrow hit Rowan in the shoulder piercing six inches deep at knocked her flat and left her in agony she was dragged from the field for emergency, surgery had, got just abandoned. The French not even close, that afternoon despite, suffering a wounds that would leave most of us curled up on the floor wailing, for a mum, don't, return, to the battlefield the sight of her banner rising, once more in the afternoon sunlight, sent, up a great cheer from the French they routed, the English by maybe eight thing Glyn's forces, they were in full retreat Joan. Of Arc had done exactly what, should promised to do and the siege volley or it, was over. If, you need proof of the kind of power Joan of Arc had over the people look no further than, what happens after the siege of ah Lian where the English in Fleiss the French forces went to chase them only to be told by Joan in no uncertain terms, that, it was a Sunday and good Catholics, they shouldn't, fight on a Sunday amazingly, these rough men they listen to the English they were allowed to escape as they retreated, it said that Joan went and, wept over their dead a sign, of respect that was not being reciprocated at. Our trial not, that there was much time for Joan to weep though she already had another task she needed to get Charles, to Ross the, problem was that ROMs wasn't, like ollie on sitting, on the front lines it was deep into the English territory she, might as well be trying to take him to London but James she kept on pressing and Charles, was eventually like fine, I'll go, but you're gonna have to clear a path for me first and, well that's exactly what Joan did over the next few weeks her army stormed up and down the Loire River liberating. Towns so, effective, was she that the English began to believe that she was possessed by the devil, not, that Joan was particularly, satanic. She never personally. Fought instead, using her banner and bravery, to inspire. Her men she, also absolutely. Forbid her forces from looting or to rape any women the only unusual part, from a medieval perspective. Was the way that she insisted, on dressing, with and sleeping, alongside her men it's because of this that modern historians, have theorized that she may have been gay or trans, finally.
On June the 8th Joan's forces, met the remnants, of the English at the Battle, of patay to, say Joan's army mopped the floor with them would be a disservice, to mops. They absolutely. Pulverized. Them after, this Charles, he couldn't ignore Joan, any longer when she came back and told him to get his kingly Astaroth, he, absolutely agreed as Joan and Charles wrote across northern France town after town fell, without, even putting up a resistance they, liberated Orser chalan, tois, toir was the place where the French had had to sign the humiliating, treaty with Henry v on July the 16th or alarm e finally, reached Ross the, gates opened as they approached the city of Kings had, fallen just. Two months ago the idea of getting the French army to Ross was like asking jar jar binks to, single-handedly, fight his way inside death, private, chambers, nope and now, here, Joan and Charles were triumphant. The very next day July the 17th 1429, Charles, of Valois was coronated Charles, the seventh of France Joan stood beside him during the ceremony ins afterwards, she knelt and called him that King and that points, her visions they just stopped a mission, it was over and God apparently didn't, have any more plans for her but it seems Joan, had gotten a taste for battle as Charles the seventh embarked, on a victory lap around his newly conquered territories, the maid of all er made a fateful decision she, decided to go, to Paris. On. August the twenty-eighth 1429. Charles the seventh opens peace negotiations. With Burgundians, he worked suddenly not really so hot on their alliance with the using English, the news gave June the bad feeling that any peace treaty might block her taking action against Paris this was a big deal as the French capital it lay in the hands of the English so, Joan she, went rogue on September, the 8th she led her army out independently, to attack Paris, this, was. A major mistake to, continue our Star Wars metaphor take in Paris in 4029, was like trying to break into the Death Star using an anchovy, the. Walls of the city there were nearly 30 feet high still, Joan she tried waving, her banner and demanding that Paris surrender, she got a cross boat through the length of her trouble, and was dragged, from the battlefield screaming, at her men to continue the assault, instead, they retreated when word got back to Charles about what Joan was up to during his delicate negotiations. He, cut her loose yep. Joan might have made him King that Charles had no problem, with stopping, her supplies of weapons and Men and then basically, ignoring, her while he did allow her to keep fighting it was probably, just to get that busy but Joan riding around liberating, the odd small town was a Joan not whipping up discontent, in the army still it wasn't until the spring of 1430. That it became clear just how far Charles was distancing, himself from the girl who had saved his regime, during, an attempt to relive a siege on Compiegne on May the 23rd Joan, was knocked from a horse behind enemy lines, seeing, no point in fighting on she allowed herself to be captured by, the Burgundian, forces, everyone, expected, Charles to quickly trade for her everyone, they expected, wrong Charles, just, didn't lift a finger this left the burgundians in an awkward position on the one hands they wanted, to keep Charles happy, and sign a treaty with him but on the other hands they didn't, want citrus to return his best leader to the field to take more burgundy in towns so in July of 1430, they reached a compromise they, sold Joan to the English when, Joan heard the news she attempted, to commit suicide by, leaping from the Tower of Castle, but she survived and on January the 3rd 1431, she was handed over to English, loyalists.
In Northern France so what did the English and their Stooges do when they got their grubby little paws, on the girl he made Charles the seventh King well, they took her to raw and they put her on trial. On March. The 25th 1431, the church authorities at, Rouen charged, Joan on 70 religious, points, ranging from heresy, to dressing in men's clothes, wears, as that last one seems it, was legit Deuteronomy. Chapter 22, verse 5 does actually contain a direct, prohibition from God on women wearing men's clothes so. Well now you know Jones prosecutors, they set theological, traps trying to trip her up in Doctrine one of the key parts, of the Joan of Arc myth is that she was able to avoid these traps and leave the prosecutors. With almost nothing those, original 70 charges, the authorities, were forced to throw 58, of them out but let's. Not kid ourselves that, this was just a spirited, debate about theology, from. The moment she got to Ramon Joan was kept in awful conditions she, was chained to a filthy bed in a filthy prison and given just enough food to keep her from dying day, and night male guards, they watched her taunting, her and threatened, her with assault on April, the 18th Joan's, conditions, they cost a default badly, sick convinced, she was dying she begged to be allowed to see a priest her request, it was refused, finally, on May the 24th the authorities, that had enough unable, to settle the last 12 points they dragged Joan outside for a mock execution, and then basically said sign this confessional that execution next time it's gonna be real Joan. Signed the, documents contained a very specific Clause, forbidding, her from ever dressing as a man again and a pain of death, something that this clause was inserted. Very deliberately, because a couple of days later the authorities, came to visit Joan in prison and found, her dressed as a boy the official version is that Joan did claimed the Saints had ordered her to wear the clothes but other sources suggest, the cause, was, far darker supposedly. The men guarding Joan stripped her naked and, gave her the choice of either putting on male clothes, or remaining naked before them knowing, what would happen if she remains naked Joan she, chose the clothes regardless. The, outcome was the same on May the 30th 1431, Joan was led out to plaster, view Martians tied to a stake it said that one of her guards slipped her a wooden crucifix, on the way in order to comfort at that warm spring day Joan of Arc was burned alive, the executioner, was forbidden, from easing her misery by killing her before the flames reached her flesh and Joan, died screaming, in agony I reported, last words were the pitiful wailing. Begging. For some Michael to rescue her the angel, never, appeared when, the execution, was over the authorities, had her remains burnt again and then scattered, her ashes in the river the story of, Joan of Arc it was over or. Was it 19. Years after Joan was executed, Charles the seventh Road in Rouen by now the Hundred Years War was winding down and the French were on the verge of winning stood, in the city where his one-time Savior burnt death, Charles ordered an inquiry into Joan's trial this inquiry ended up at the Vatican where in 1456. Pope Callixtus the, third annulled, all charges, against her when the news reached France Joan was elevated, to a martyr, the 116. Years of conflict had finally ended in 1493. And war shattered France was in need of a national hero bended Joan they, found one she's kind of remained there ever since on May the 16th 1920. Pope Benedict, the 15th canonized, her four days later the French Parliament declared a national day in her honor fast, forward to today and she's arguably, more famous than Charles the 7th Henry the fifth or any of the forgotten, Kings who fought and raged, around her but there's more to Droughns legacy, than just being remembered you can still see the effect that she had on the entire world historians. Think it's unlikely that Charles the seventh would have 100, years war without June that means an English victory which as great as that sounds would have meant no United French nation just, think no France don't know French Revolution, which means no de Polian which essentially. Means no modern world just, to pick at random there, would be no, metric system no Louisiana, Purchase no France, to mock the Americans, in the Revolutionary Wars. The entire planet, eerie look completely different whilst. Joan of Arc divinely, inspired or, just, a deluded peasant girl whose belief, was enough to make her a warrior it really doesn't matter in her short 19, years on earth Joan, of Arc changed, the world in ways that even kings, and emperors rarely.
Do She, meant been born and nobody but she died Joan. Of Arc the heroine, of France. So, I really hope you found the video interesting, if you did please do give us a thumbs up below and don't forget to subscribe we've got brand new videos just like this several times a week also, hit that notification, bell so you actually find, out where we put our new videos that's just the way the YouTube works these days and as always see. You next time.