Edward Longshanks: The Braveheart Bad Guy
édouard the first known as Longshanks, for his uncharacteristic. Height was a man among men and, a king among, kings as, a child he was so sickly, that few thought he would survive, to even take the crown but take, it he dips immediately. Displaying, a strength and determination, that had been sorely lacking he quickly established his authority with ruthless suppression. Of rebellion earning, him the nickname the hammer of the Scots and, the adoration. Of all of England in this week's biographic. Sui get up close and personal. With the man who, was Edward. Longshanks the. King of England. Edward. The first future King of England was born at Westminster, Palace in London on June the 17th, 12:39. He was the first born son of King Henry the third and eleanor of provence henry was a great admirer, of previous, King Edward the Confessor, and named, his son in his honor Edward, was not a well child in fact he was so weak that the general consensus, was that he wouldn't survive into adulthood but, survived he did growing into an unusually. Tall and rather robust, teenager, he would eventually grow to a height of six foot two which allowed him to tower over most of his contemporaries it was his unusual, height which would lead soldiers, to refer to him as Longshanks. During, his formative years edward, was groomed to take the mantle of king he was educated by the best scholars and members of the clergy hero, became his physical, weaknesses, to become an able, wielder, of the sword and club as well as a keen student of the arts and languages at the age of 15 edward entered into an arranged marriage with a 13 year old eleanor, daughter of ferdinand, the third of castile the union was precipitated, by the, fear of a Castilian, invasion. Of the province, of Gascony, as part of their marriage contract, Edward received land grants worth fifteen thousand, marks annually, in taxation this, land covered much of Ireland, and Wales, however, the entitlement, that the teenage Prince had was only. In name, as the lands, were still controlled by his father and the income, generated, went not to him but rather to the raw left-hand. Monford, the 6th Earl of Leicester the Earl of Leicester was married, to the King's sister Edward, did benefit from the marriage Alliance on a more personal, level unlike the vast majority of such arranged unions, he and Alan and genuinely cared for each other and that fondness grew into a love that lasted, their entire lives. King. Henry was an extremely, pious man whose main focus as King was on building up the authority, and symbolism, of the, church he devoted himself to rebuilding, Westminster, Abbey putting his energies into this project at the expense of more, pressing, concerns, of state a series, of ill-advised, military, forays each of which ended in failure added fuel to the fire of discontent, with his reign among the nobility attempts, were made to usurp, the Kings authority and wrestle, power away from him the two most powerful noble, factions, at that time with a Salette and cologne, families, who were opposed to each other Henry pushed a policy of neutrality between, the camps in 12:55, however, the 16 year old Edward began siding, with the Soler family, this marked his first act of independence from his father in the following year and we began associating. With what was called the loose in your faction, made up of the half-brothers of his father who were a French origin, this group was largely, despised, by the nobility and had a reputation for being rather, uncouth, and violent, concerns. Were expressed in, the royal court over, the increasing wildness. Of Edwards conduct, when he was with the Lu seniors three, years later a body of nobles drew up a document known as the provisions, of Oxford which, spelled, out a series, of reforms designed to give the Barons much more say in the running of the Kings government the, Baron's were especially opposed, to the influence, of the loosen Yass relations.
Between Henry and his brother-in-law Simon, de Montfort had been strained from the very start Simon, had not sought the Kings permission for marriage to his sister Simon then proceeded, to amass, large debts, naming the King as guarantor, again, without his permission, Simon was at the forefront of the Barons efforts to bring reform, and the pressure imposed eventually, led to the Kings signing the provisions, he was now obligated to seek the counsel of his barons on matters, relating, to the governing of the kingdom as the pressure began to mount on his father Edward remains, loyal to his friends the loosin yawns and took a stance in opposition to the provisions of Oxford but as the reform movement grew in intensity, his, position it shifted, on October 12 59, he announced, that he was supportive, of the goals of the Barons and aligned himself with his father's rival Simon de Montfort in November, 12 59 King Henry embarked, on a voyage to France in his absence Edwards opposition, to his father a group he appointed several of the rebellious, barons to important, positions within the raw court when, news of this reached his father in Normandy he was convinced, that Edward was about to stage an overthrow he, quickly returned to London to reimpose, his position at first the outraged, Henry, refused to even see Edward but finally, the sort of peace was brokered, between them by the Archbishop, of Canterbury, it was decided that Edward was to go abroad which, he did at the age of 21, in November, 1260. He ended up in France where he fell in love with his old pals the Lucien Yuans. Meanwhile. In 1261, King Henry with the backing of the Pope in Rome overthrew, the provisions, of Oxford, they said the Barons to set up their own independent Parliament's, with civil, war looming this noble Parliament it was dissolved, and the noble rebellious, barons they, fled De Montfort himself I left the country but he returned two years later when, the heat had died down the one foot managed to raise a sizable, army and marched on London the, King vacillated, and seemed it ready to give, up his throne it was at this point that Edwards stepped up and began to take control of the situation any, hesitancy, he had previously shown in supporting his father's rule had vanished and he was now staunchly, determined. To restore the Kings dominance, he took control of the king's army and led them in defense of the realm the rebels were ousted from Windsor Castle a compromise, of sorts was reached thanks to the intervention of King bluey the 9th of France who negotiated, the agreements, known as the meze of Amir the, vase between the king and the Barons was short-lived in 1264. Hostilities, broke out once more with the onset, of what history recalls as the second, barons, war once, again the Barons were led by Simon, de Montfort while the forces, loyal to the king were buds of the control of the now 24, year old Prince Edward in the wake of a series of smaller victories, Edward's army met up with the forces of De Montfort at the Battle of Loos on may the 14th, 1264. Things, went, well for the royalist forces as they managed to force the London contingent, of the opposition into retreat but then Edward made the mistake of breaking, off with a portion of his army to chase down the Londoners, when he returned to the main scene of the battle his forces had, been defeated. Edward was taken as a prisoner and held until the following May when he managed to escape over the next few months the rawest forces, steadily wore down the resistance, army the most telling victory, was at the Battle of Evesham on August the 4th 1265.
The Baron's army was ravaged, with many of its leaders being, put to the sort Simon, de Montfort was himself killed, when a Lance was run through his body Edward, then allowed his soldiers, do mutilate, the body including cutting off the testicles, and hanging, them over de Montfort snows such, actions, were strictly, against, the protocol of war which stipulated, that Nobles were to be treated humanely, however, dead would consider de Montfort to be a traitor, and therefore, beyond the rules conduct the last of the rebels made a stand at Kenilworth Castle finally. Surrendering, in accordance with the terms of the dictum of Kenilworth edwards. Decisive, actions and leadership skills during, the barons rebellion, showed him to be a man of action who possessed, the courage ability, and personality to be a great king yes with the rebellion crushed and his father's rulership a shirt he put his focus on an upcoming crusade. King. Louie the 9th of France was planning a crusade to North Africa in order to defeat the Muslims in 1268. Edward left England with a force of around, 1200. Men along, with him was his wife Eleanor after crossing the channel and then the Mediterranean, they arrived at North Sarika you need to discover the French King was dead the result, of a fatal bout of dysentery, Edward, was now the leader of the allied force and he chose to withdraw the fleet to Sicily, however on routes a severe storm decimated, the fleet and the French contingent, decided, to return home rather, than following the French example, Edward decided to forge ahead he, landed at Accra on May the 9th 1271. The, Christian Empire in the Holy Land was under serious threat from the Muslim States with Jerusalem already having fallen in 1244. The Egyptian Mamluks were now threatening, to take Accra, which served as the Christian capital, with a relatively, small force, of men there was little Edward could do to stem the tide of Muslim aggression, the Mamluk warrior King Babar's, had tens, of thousands of men under his command before departing for home however it would played a part in the negotiation. The truce with Baybars once, the treaty was signed he, stayed for a period of time to ensure that its conditions, would be carried out one, night in September of 12 72 an assassin, entered the bedchamber of Edward and Elinor in order to attempt to thrust a poisonous, dagger into the princes on Edward, was able to fend off the attack and kill the assassin legend, has it that Alan, s sucked the poison from, her husband's arm thus saving his life. In. The. Wake of the foiled assassination, plot the royal couple they left the Holy Land upon sailing to sicily edward was given the news that his father the king had, died, edward had been weakened by the poison attack and so now as king of England's he and Eleanor his queen took a leisurely trip home the situation, back in England it was pretty stable so he didn't really see a need to rush back Edward. Made his way home through dirtily and then on to France crossing, the channel in early August of 1274. Edward, was officially, crowned King Edward the first on August the 19th 1274. At Westminster, Abbey when, the crown was placed upon his head a chronicler, reported, that Edward immediately, took it off again and stated, that he would only wear it again when all of the territory that was lost during the kingship, of his father was, returned the new king was 35, years old he was tall muscular and militarily. Adept, he was the man of action that his father had, simply not been you, see he enjoyed the roughest, and most dangerous forms, of hunting such as going after boars and wolves as a younger man he was prone to flying off the handle but age had, restrained his temper by the time he ascended to the throne he, had built a reputation as a loyal friends, and a devoted ruler, however he was also known as a hard man who could be harsh even cruel in the furtherance. Of his own will Edwards, reign it was not going to be a continuation, of his father's week and lenient, rule he immediately set, about re-establishing the dominance, of the crown his other power was son questions, but he saw that in order to retain power he had to institute policies that were popular with the people determined, to prevent a repeat of the civil war that had scarred his father's reign he made lasting, provision, for the lower classes to be represented, in Parliament this, established, the basis of the House of Commons which, today is the predominant, house, in the English political system.
During. First years of his reign Edward focused primarily on streamlining, and reforming, the administration, of his government he then turned his attention to the situation that was occurring in Wales the Prince of Wales luanne in-app CRIF a.m. had been handed the title by King Henry the third in return for agreeing to pay homage to the English crown, Llewelyn however had been an ally of Henry and Edward's enemies Simon de Montfort and set about conquering of the Welsh kingdoms, and was now threatening, to move against England itself edward acted preemptively, leading a force of 10,000. Across the Welsh border however Llewellyn's, unpopularity, at home prevented, him from raising, a sizable army to counter the English invasion in fact, as his army moved up the Welsh countryside Edwards, forces, were strengthened. By the addition, of local Welsh armies who were opposed, to Llywelyn among, those who joined Edward was Llewellyn's, own brother defeat the, upstart was soon deposed and Edward claims large swaths, of Welsh territory, as his own he rewarded a fit by giving him a small parcel of lands now was not pleasing to him and he felt that he deserved much, more for his service to the crown in 1282, defit led a revolt against, the king that was soon joined by his seething brother Llewellyn an angry, Edward responded by invading Wales a second time this time however he was determined to go all out with a three-pronged. Attack from the south east, and the north the English invasion was unstoppable resulting, in these stomping out of the rebellion, and the death in battle of Llewellyn for his party's effort was captured and executed edward. Consolidated. His victory in Wales by constructing, a series of castles, throughout the lands the most impressive was at Caernarfon it, was here that Edwards, son and future heir Edward ii, was born in 1284, the now vacant title of Prince of Wales was bestowed upon the child and since that time the heir to the British throne has, been given that title in a ceremony, that is held at conovan Castle when, it came to foreign relations, Edward did his best to maintain peaceful, relations, with his European counterparts despite, the fact that Philip, the third of France was his cousin relations, between the two powers were under, constant tension when Philip died in 1285, Edward crossed the channel in order to pay homage to the new, French King Philip the fourth he did not return to England until 1289, spending much time in the Duchy of Gascony which, was one of his possessions in, 1287. Edward took the cross for the second time intending, to stage another far more successful, crusade, to retake the holy lands from the Muslims he knew that success, in this enterprise depended, on the stitching together of a truly international. European alliance towards, that end he expended, much effort trying to preserve, peace among the powers Edwards, long absence, from London had thrown the government into confusion, and chaos he, returned to discover the corruption, was rife and was forced in disgust, to expel many of his judges and ministers, all of them the 28th 1290, felon had died after suffering a protracted, illness that may have been malaria, she was just 48 years of age having spent 35, of them at Edwards side the king was distraught, at the loss of his wife he became a hardened, man in the wake of her loss more bitter and brooding. In nature. Edwards. Campaign against the well should imposed huge, financial burdens, upon its nation taxes, were the main way to meet those expenses, and a prime source of that taxation were the Jews of England Edward tax the Jews far more heavily than any other group in 1279, he ordered the arrest of all the heads of Jewish households, throughout the country about 300. Of them were put to death the following year all Jews were ordered, to attend special sermons, preached by Dominican, friars in order to convert, them to Christianity then, in 1290, Edward issued the Edict of expulsion by which all Jews were kicked out of England it wasn't until 16 56 that the Jewish ban in England was finally, lifted. From. 1290, onward Edwards attention was focused on troubles in Scotland following the death of Alexander the third in 1286, Scotland's, was governed in the name of his granddaughter, Margaret, King Edward had made the suggestion that his eldest surviving son Edward, of Karneval Margaret, should be united, in marriage bringing, about the union of England and Scotland before, this could happen though Margaret, died the Scottish throne was. Now in dispute with a number of claimants the English King was asked to play the role of arbitrator, and Edward, agreed but on the condition that the claimants, accept him as their overlord in 1292, he awarded the throne to John Balliol who was crowned as the new king it didn't take long however for the Scottish people to resent, the jurisdictional, control that Edward held over their country John was deprived of all his power and the Scots formed an alliance with France by, this time England's relations, with the French had deteriorated things, had come to a head when Philip the fourth refused to restore the Duchy of Gascony to, Edward, in 1293, Edward, declared war on France at the very time that the Scots had united with Scotland to make a bad situation worse, the Welsh chose this time to rise in rebellion King, John of Scotland gathered his forces in, March of 1296.
Edward, Mustered, his forces and again marched into battle many Scottish Nobles including Robert the Bruce sided, with Edward whose first, target city was, the City of Berwick it, turns into a brutal, massacre, of the Scots with many people being killed next, target was the castle at Dunbar despite. Having the higher grounds the Scottish defenders, were routed on April, the 27th, 1296. The Scottish army was virtually, wiped out allowing, Edward to quickly, take a succession. Of castles, all that remained was for King John to surrender on July the 2nd John sent a pleading letter to Edward begging forgiveness and, mercy, Edward, accepted, but only after subjugating, John to a series, of humiliations. Including, having the Scottish coat of arms torn from his sir coat he was then thrown into the Tower of London but, Edward wasn't finished with Scotland's, he was determined to stamp out any vestiges, of Scottish independence and, to absorb its people into the English Kingdom he demanded oaths of fealty from all Scottish Nobles, magnates. And either refused to do so were hunted down as outlaws. After. Conquering the Scots Edward returned south he now had to focus on issues with the French, however the masses in Scotland were not ready to subject, themselves to the heel of Edward Longshanks resistance. Grew under three divergent. Leaders in the southwest Robert the Bruce emerged as the head of a gathering of nobles and church leaders in the Northeast the struggle, was spearheaded, by Andrew, Murray and in the center of the country forces. Were being gathered, by an obscure, member of a noble family named, William Wallace in 1297. Wallace, murdered the English sheriff of lanark William de historic, this act United, the disjointed, pockets of resistance into, a full-blown. Rebellion, two, months later with the situation, reaching a crisis, point Edward, was forced to send his left tenants, in to deal with the situation, meanwhile, he had his own battle to fight in Flanders, in France, even, though we didn't want his conquest, of Scotland to run Ravel he also knew that abandoning, planned French invasion would only strengthen. The rebels hand as, things turned out the British underestimated. The strength of the Scottish resistance what, appeared to be a Scottish, attempted, and negotiated. Surrender, was in fact a ruse to allow Wallace more time to gather his army with his army strength and Wallace managed to push the English from five per share and Dundee the climactic battle occurred at Stirling, Bridge the, English outnumbered, the Scots six to one but when the leader of the first vanguard, hugh decreasing, him was reputedly, struck down by wallace himself thousands, following turn and fled while this went on to exploit the terrain and generally, outmaneuver, the british to win a resounding, victory, Wallace quickly led his ever-growing forces. To overthrow, the remaining English outposts, in Scotland he then crossed the border and invaded English territory after taking Northumberland's. He reached as far south as Cockermouth, with this it, was time for Edward to take control of the situation personally, in 1298, the king's army gathered Roxburgh, with the king joining, them in early July he marched north with 17,000. Men by now Wallace had returned to Scotland Edward was determined, to hunt him down though Wallace, however he was not keen to engage the King and drew the monarch further north the Scots had stripped the lands leaving the English with no food and a stretched-out supply, line with his army disintegrating. Edward had a stroke of luck when, intelligence. Was received that Wallace and his men were stationed, far Kirke about 20, miles away the King immediately set his army and the erection of our the, Scots they were surprised, but they were in a strongly, entrenched position, in the end though the strength of the English infantry, and cavalry assaults, was too much for the Scottish army and they were torn to pieces while. It's managed to escape and let pockets of resistance for, the next seven years but, the English they were able to re-establish dominance. Over Scotland in 1305. William, Wallace was finally, captured by the English it was taken to London where it was hung drawn, and quartered. However. This wasn't the end of the Scottish problem for Edward in 1306. Robert the Bruce assassinated. Rival for the throne which had been vacant for 10 years, he then had himself crowned King, of Scotland he was quickly defeated in battle with the English after which he went into hiding only to return in 1307, to conduct hit-and-run, raids on English fortresses, Edwards, now in failing health was still determined to bring up this latest, Scottish, rebel to heal he again gathered his army and headed north on the journey to Scotland however the King contracted, dysentery on the morning of July the 7th 1307.
He Died just a few miles short of the Scottish border it is said that he left instructions with his son for the flesh to be boiled from his body and his bones to be preserved, then every, time the Scots should rebel against him his son would carry with him the bones of his father instead, his body was taken back to London where it was placed in a plain tomb in Westminster, Abbey 700, years later that, tomb is still on display reminding. Visitors of, the strength and authority of, one of England's most impressive. Monix so, I really hope you found the video interesting, if you did please do give us a thumbs up below don't, forget to subscribe for brand new videos every day of the week also got another channel it's called today I found out we do actually daily, videos on that channel exploring, all manner, of interesting. Things please find our link to that on the screen now as well as below this video and as always thank. You for watching.