Customer is King but...| Professor Jeff French | The Mindspark
Professor. Jeff, French. Thank. You so much, thanks again what it's great to be here with you but, I know it's been a long afternoon, and. You're getting tired. Okay, but, the clapping is not very good okay. So. What. I want is just just. This side to clap. Okay. It's. Not great okay. What. About this side clap. So. This is called behavioral reinforcement, I'm, just going to speak to you now ignore, them. Okay. It's as, I said it's great to be here with you. I've got about kind of 30 minutes, or so so, I'm, going to try and keep this last session. Light, and a bit entertaining, well. I've got some pretty serious things, to say to you I, am. A scientist. I, came. To kind of marketing, later but. I'm a biologist, and, I. Spent, my life, trying. To understand, why, people do, things and what. You've heard in every presentation. So, far is that, it's about understanding, people. And. Influencing. People so. What I'm going to share with you is a. Lot. Of the science, we have now about. How to influence, people so not guessing how, to influence, people but. Applying what we know works and not, doing things that, don't work okay. So. Let's see if we can make. This work oh yeah this is me to where it contacts, me okay, well. When I come and do a presentation in, the country I like to find out a little about the, people that I'm going to be speaking to so. I did some research about a, group, Greece that, was really interesting and, one of the most interesting graphs, that I came across was, this, one and this. Is a graph. That compares. People's. Views, about how intelligent. You are depending. On how much you smile, okay. So. People. At this end of. The spectrum. Here. And I've. Got my. Daughter-in-law, and a son who lives in Japan so know a lot about Japan, and Japanese management, I can we have a discussion about that later on it's, not like, that old-fashioned view of Japanese. Management it doesn't work like that anymore. But. People at this end they, think the more you smile, when, you talk, the. Less intelligent, you are okay. People. At this end. Think, the opposite the more you smile the, more intelligent you are okay. So, this. Is you. This. Is where I come from so. I. Can't, help it I'm going to smile okay, Byam reasonably, intelligent so, let me have that, okay. I also, want to find out about some of the some, of you about you in the audience, so. Put your hand up for me if you. Work in a company or an organization. Business. That. Employs more. Than 200, people put. Your hand up to. Three, like. It for five. Put. Your hand up if you work in an organization that, employs more than 100. People. Okay. One to the other ones you should have also put your hands up because this still, works in it now, what about less than sorry. More than 50, people. Okay. About ten. Less. Than ten people. Quite. A lot of it okay. It's. Good to see that kind of range if, I would particularly say for the people that work in smaller organizations you're. In a sense the more important, ones because, they're some of the other speakers. Have been saying you're. The people that act as the bedrock, of any community, and any, economy. And you're, usually the people from which bigger, companies, come so, it's. Great to have you here. They the. Examples, that I'll give you a lot of examples today. Irrelevant. Whether you work in a great big company. That employs thousands, of people or. If you run a small company with two or three people. This. Is all about. Influencing. The people. Okay. You've now had a few moments, to think and look at these pictures, on the screen, so. Subconsciously, I've been working on you okay. What, I want you to do now is think, and choose. Don't. Tell anybody else, which. Of these shapes and colors best, describes. The. Way that you operate at, work, okay. And then I'm gonna get you to tell me which one you think you are okay. So. Put. Up your hand if you. Think. You're. A Red Square and I'll tell you what it means so do you think you might be a Red Square ah. Two, brave. People. At the front. Red. Squares, this is all based on research. People. Who think their red squares. Like. A really, good plan. About. How to get from A to B you, want no guesswork you want a good plan. Okay. Put up your hand if you. Think you're a move. Triangle. Or. A few. More two or three, you. Don't care as much about the plan what. You want to do is hit the targets, whatever. They are so. Who thinks they're a green star. Or. Okay. About, a third of you. That. You are. Really interested, and you're really creative kind of people you. Like to solve problems and. Create new things, okay. And. Put up your hand if you're a yellow circle Oh. Again. About a third you don't care about any of that stuff you just like having a nice time.
That's. What you're here the, timeout, okay. Now. That's not true that's not based on science it's just the joke, but. It's the kind of thing we need to get inside, people's, heads, to, understand, them okay we've. Got lots of techniques for, doing that now and, we've got a lot of scientific, data that, helps, us understand. What's going on in here. Okay. So. My title of my presentation is, about kings and queens but, influencing, them our customers, the. People that we're seeking to serve. Citizens. Are, the ones we need to understand, if, we're going to help them so. Influencing. Behavior is key to everything so we need to know what. The best practice, is. We. Should use science, to influence, behavior as well as beliefs. Most. Of our beliefs are based on, scientific. Principles anyway, and I'll come to that and, it's. Not just about awareness, and, telling people stuff and information, as. I'll show you some examples where, having, information about something does not make you change and you know that intuitively. Lots. Of what I will say to you, you. Will think and the examples, I'll give you you, would think oh yeah that makes sense to me okay. So. That's your intuition, telling you that but, it's also based, on a lot of research, okay. Okay. So that's what I'm going to cover. What. Influences. Our behavior. Some. Traditional, ways of, influencing behavior. Then. Some new understanding about. Influencing, behavior and, then, some examples from, around the world. Okay. But. I've got you know I've got about 20 not just a few hundred years but. Tens, of thousands, of years of learning about human, evolution to. Do in. 30. Minutes, okay, or, 40, minutes why. If I only got 30 minutes to speak. Because, most intelligent, human beings can't concentrate, for longer than that okay. That's, why a TEDTalk is quite short we. Know how much you can concentrate and a lot of you are we falling asleep, now I can start, to see that so. This. Is based on a lot of research having. Short presentations. That, took place again at Yale University, that's. The second time this has been mentioned this was in the 1950s, and, there's a lot of research to find out how to give a good talk, one.
Issues Audio, visual aids that. Helps. But. What they found was. After. About 15, to 20 minutes. People's. Minds start to wander and they. Start thinking about sex, okay, so. When I see you glazing over I know time. To stop okay. Okay. What influences, behavior a lot. Of stuff, influences. Behavior okay. All, kinds, of things genetics, your, culture, evolution. Learning, many, things and the, mistake, is, to think I know, the. One thing that, will change behavior. Because. Usually it's a combination of, things that we need to use. So. As. I said I'm a biologist, and, we have tens, of thousands, of years of human evolution. That. I've led and created. For us a. Biological. And evolutionary. Set. Of ways of behaving. And. Responding. To things and understanding. And even perceiving. Things okay, you, cannot deny that many. Of the things you do you do because that's been an evolutionary. Response of. Course. Over. That we also have learning and social, interactions. And culture, all. Of these things can. Influence our, behavior. But. We'll. Do another little experiment now, evolution. Is a really, powerful thing. Okay. Which I hope to demonstrate can. You all people. At the back can you kind of see this more or less some. People at the back here can. You see this just, put your hand up if you can if, you can see it. You. Can see it okay, so. What. I want you to do is I want to show you a picture and, just. Think who. It is they don't ask you who it is okay. Don't. Don't say who is okay. So, you know okay, who, is it. Does, everybody here think it's Einstein. Right. No, okay what about people from about here backwards, who do you think it is. You. Think is Einstein. Marilyn. Monroe, okay. So, this is a visual. Perception. Illusion. Okay. And, it operates because human, beings have evolved, things. That are a distance, we, do look for general shapes. Things. That are closer to we focus on the detail and, this drawing has been done in such a way that it, sends two sets of messages to your brain and. If you're here you think it's one person, anything. At the back you think it's probably, Marilyn, Monroe you can see it I'll leave it out the front you can try it afterwards. Okay. So. That's just a metaphor, for. Whether, you like it or not your. Brain, works, in a particular way, with, your body to. Make decisions, about stuff, and sometimes. That's. Great it really helps us sometimes, it makes us make mistakes, about things okay. It's another example. Look, at these two. Faces, of this person, I'm, now, going to flip them around this looks pretty normal yeah. No. This. Is what it looks like okay. So same pictures. Why. Because. You're you're you've spent your entire life, and. 10,000. Years of the evolution, being. Really good at spotting people's, faces and. You've never seen in a face like this doesn't. Make sense to you subconsciously. So. You turn it your brain turns this that's, what it actually is into. Something else. Okay. So. What. Influences, behavior. Social. And economic. Influences, big. Impact. Biology. And evolution. Big impact. Environment. Big impact. But, also. Our. Two thinking, systems, inside. Our brain we have two ways of making decisions, about, whether we do things or not. Okay. There's. Tons of research and theory, which I won't bore you with but, it's there okay. Traditional. Ways of influencing behavior then. We. Can control, people, we can inform, them we can design services. And solutions, apps we. Can educate people, and we can provide support services all, of these can, influence behavior, example. We. Can control people, this, helps them give up smoking sometimes, we. Can make sure that there's a law that says you will wear your seatbelt, this, is from Ankara and. People. In Turkey supposed to wear your seatbelt but they just go to the market and buy, something. To plug in so, the car doesn't believe, in them because they don't believe in it. This. Is exactly. Driver in Athens. He. Didn't have any money to go to the market so he just clipped it around the back okay. So, we can you can try and control people oh. Yes. There's another thing just think. Of pick one card remember, that card and we'll come back to this okay. Remember. The card we'll come back to it so. We can control, people, or we can tell them to do thing do this is good for you or, it's a great product come and buy our product, just. Tell them stuff. Most. People don't want to listen to what you've got to say okay. Example. Graphic, example, even when, somebody's, had a really, serious, life.
Event, Like a heart, attack okay. How, many people, change. Their behavior after, a heart attack. About. One in nine okay. Changing. Behavior is difficult and just telling. People stuff doesn't, work so. If you're operating, in, a field where you're saying the, way we're going to change our customers, or get new customers or. People that we're working with by, giving them information that, probably, is not going to be enough. Okay. Oh. Yeah. Okay let's do the card trick now so. When I show the cards, if, I because, I've been thinking, about what you've been doing I've. Taken your card out of the deck, okay so, if your card is missing. Put. Your hand up okay. Card. Missing. I'm. Good okay. Okay. Anybody thinks their card is there anybody's, cards there. One. It, isn't okay. I. Just. Changed all the cards okay, the. Other point about information. Is people, forget, very. Quickly, okay. You, did when I said to you pick one. Card that meant you forgot focusing. On everything out of the card you just focused on one okay, so people forget. And. Get distracted very easily. Okay. Information. Of course is, really, useful, in, certain circumstances this is from Japan this, is lots of. Diagrammatic. Information, about how to use it or hotel and not. Having to speak Japanese information. Can be useful but it's not the answer. If. You want to inform people. About a new product that's, been specially, tailored for them these are special genes for old women and they're. Called, Not. Your, Daughters Jeans. Okay. Special. Products for older women to. Look good okay. I didn't know that that's useful I now know that okay. I'm able not not me personally but, some. Older women may want to buy some jeans, okay. Design. Can be really, helpful if you want to encourage people to recycle plastic bottles. Or glass bottles, Norway. Have got a great system, where, there's a recycling. Machine that give you cash back in many places design, solution, can, work. We. Can educate people in, terms of using our services, and all the benefits they get or in, or in schools and, education. Is different from inform a education. Is about critical. Consciousness-raising. So. I really understand, an issue and I can I can debate it not just I know something. We. Can provide support services, to people in, say, the medical centers, and hospitals, and things but also you, know to customers, to. Help them if they have any problems this. Can help change. Behaviour, but. What. I want to focus on in the next 15 minutes is some. New understanding. From behavioral, psychology. Evolutionary. Biology. And behavioral. Economics, about. How, we influence behavior, in new ways. So. There's. Lots of books out there now that mean you don't have to read lots of scientific, journals and papers the, kind of thing I spend my life doing because. Lots of these books. Summarize. A lot. Of research and, make it very easy to kind of engage with. There's. Anybody in the room read any of these books a. Couple. Of you okay. This, is an example of some of the insights. One. Of these shapes is called Kiki. The. Other shape is called bubar, okay. So one's called Kiki, and, one's called Bupa make. Up your mind which is which, okay. Who. Thinks this one, is. Called. Kiki, put your hand up ahh. Most people okay. About, 95%, of people would, would say that okay and because there's a certain association.
In Our brains between. Sounds. And shapes. Which called syntheses this in, psychology. So. This is a metaphor for our ability, to be able to predict, what, people will do or perceive. By. Our understanding of science. Okay. So, one I don't know much Greek, but I know. Ethos. Logos pathos. Okay, that I know and. Many people who think. Logical. Cognitive. Rational. Thinking, is the. Way that we make most decisions. But. We've got lots of research that says that's, not how, we make most decisions. Okay. So. No we, don't make by, and large rational. Decisions, about things. Inside. Your head, your. Brain has, two thinking, systems. It. Has the, old, primitive. Brain. This is the kind of brain that most animal, other animals, have, and. It has a prefrontal, cortex. Which very few other animals have to. The extent, that we do. This. Part, of our brain is, interested. In emotional. Responses. Instant, gratification. Whereas. The, prefrontal, cortex is about an illogical decision making. We. Have these two systems running, at the same time. But. One of them tends to dominate and. It's. This one, okay. And we. Are happiest, talking. About happiness earlier, on what, makes human, beings happy. When. They're operating in this mode I don't, want like thinking. Hard. Thoughts, I don't. Like making difficult decisions, okay. I just want to be relaxed, and have a good time, that's. What people want that's how most of us want to operate. Okay. So. We know that having. These two systems. Leads. To a number of what we call behavioral, biases. And. I'm going to talk. You through some of these and give you a flavor if you come to the workshops tomorrow you'll and you'll learn some more, okay. So. This, is one of the books that was up earlier if I was going to recommend a couple of books this would certainly be one it's worth a read and it's about the application, of some of this science, and a, nudge is, a way of influencing people. That. Is positive, doesn't punish them you don't, have to do what's being proposed, it's. Easy to do. And. It's low cost, okay. So, that's a nudge but, we've also got some other options for influencing, people using, those two thinking. Systems, we, can hug people smack. Them and shove, them and, I'll explain, what those are and give you some examples, so. This. Is, active. Cognitive. Decision-making. Having. To think hard about something this. Is not thinking, much. Emotional. Response. Over. Here is, reward. Or, incentive. Over. Here is punishment. Okay. So. Some examples, nudge. Don't. Have to think too much about this if you're trying to encourage people to buy fruit put it by the checkout they'll.
Just Pick more of it up you, sell more this. Tells you how to open a door okay. Very. Easy don't, have to think too much and, it it works good a. Hug. Emotional. Engagement getting. People to a moment, engage emotionally and, then giving them a reward. When. You put the rubbish in the in this bin it says thank you in a. Duck kind of way. We. Can smack people, okay, yeah, if you want to drive fast you make that decision in. An area that you should not we, catch you it's. Bad for, you. Shove. You, don't have to think about things like this they just tend to slow you down. All. Of these things can work. We. Also know that. That. Logical, part of our brain makes the hard decisions, and ways up pros. And cons can, also help. Us make. Better decisions, and also, we can train people to, do that in train children and adults to. Think more logically and constructively. And. There's some great books about that. Ok, put. Your hand up if. You, were born between. 1950. And. 1970. Anybody. Born between 1950. And 1970. That's. Me as well so there's about 10. 15 percent of you, you're. What marketing is called Generation, LX. Anybody. Born after or B even before that 1940's. You're. The kind of charm generation I mean you tend still to have you. Know most, of the material, maybe only how something, like that or apartment, and, you want it how you want it you demand good services, from companies, and. Organizations. You're. More technologically. Advanced you've got more disposable, income still. Ok, put. Up your hand if you were born after, 1970. Ok. Good 80 plus maybe percent you're, even, more. Demanding than, this older generation, and you're also more digitally, connected so. You tell other people if you don't get great service ok. So. One, of the other big. Bits. Of knowledge that we have is that, people, like to be engaged in, decision. Making if. This if there's a new product being designed a new service, people, want to be engaged in that process they. Don't just want to be told what to do. People. Are saying around the world they don't trust providers. Of services, in governments. They want to be listened to they. Want to be in control and our, job as, providers. Of services, is to help people and work with them and, co-create. Solutions. And value, okay. So, this has been mentioned by a couple of the previous speakers, working. With people, to design, develop, and. Increase. The uptake of new. Services, is key so. If you if you run a small restaurant, or. A big company, speaking. With your customers, and asking them about for, ideas about how to improve what, you do is a really good, practical, thing to be doing, because. People value that if you've, done. Any marketing training, you know about this guy, ever, gummerson, he's the father of what, they call relationship. Marketing, so. This is about building relationships between. The company, or a service, and the, people that use it and. What he's shown through lots of research is that. The, longer, and the the deeper, that relationship. Between a customer, and an organization. The. More productive, it is the more efficient, it is and the, more satisfying. It is for, both for. The company and, for the, person so building, up relationships with, people and, co-creation. Are, two of the things we know. Influences. Customer. And use the behavior. Example. This. Is a, Virgin. Atlantic, has anybody in the room flown, first. Class. Athens. To New York or, from my case London to New York with. Virgin Atlantic, yeah. Put your hand up if you have, not. Yeah okay, if you go from London to New York it costs you about six thousand euros for. A ticket okay it's, expensive. So. When, you're on the plane you have a lovely meal some nice wine, great, food nice, steward, serving, you this food and. I. Feel, sitting there having had some really nice wine and some nice food in, your big chair. You. Notice, on the tray in front of you that, there's a little salt, and pepper set, okay. And. What, do you think to yourself bearing. In mind that you've paid six thousand, euros, for your ticket. What. Might occur to you to do. To. Take them yeah okay, about. About, one-third, of people think oh they look good, I've, spent a lot of money I'm gonna have those put, them in my bag. The. Stewards, on the airplane know this, they. Don't come up and say take your trip Oh where's the salt and pepper to. Embarrass people they don't do that. When. People get home most. Of them they turn this over and. On the bottom it says. Let's. Go back one. Pinched. From Virgin Atlantic, which means stolen, from Konigsberg but, it's. The. Hook the word pinched, is a nice way of saying stolen, okay. What. Does this do, it. Does exactly, what you did it makes people laugh, okay.
And, When you laugh together you. Share, a set of values this is relationship. Marketing okay. These, things cost, nothing. Okay. But. They create a connection, and. It doesn't take many people, to, buy another six thousand euro ticket, this. Game to pay for itself these these things cost two or three euros to. Buy okay. Okay. Can we do this in not-for-profit. Sectors, if you work for the government or, whatever we. Can this is a great example that one of my friends was involved, in in the UK as. You know we. Are champion. Global, drinkers, of alcohol in, the UK. And. We. Have a big problem particularly young, women game. Drinking. Too much and, one of the problems is they drink too much and they. Come out at the end of the evening and they fall over and crack. Their Scala break, their wrists or whatever cost. A lot of money in time dealing. With those people so we want to influence their behavior and the, behavior is, we, don't want you to fall over having. Drunk too much alcohol okay, so, how could we do that one. Get. Them to drink less alcohol. Can, we do that, no. They. Like drinking alcohol and they're not going to stop okay. What's, something else we could do well. You better see it quiet people sitting here but, one of the things that these girls are wearing, is high-heeled, shoes, okay. This makes them unstable. On their feet maybe. We can get them to wear flat sensible, shoes when they go out can, we do that, no. Okay. They like wearing high-heeled shoes when they go out so, what the police do is. Offer them flip-flops, no. Their. Feet are hurting. At. The end of the evening they want to take them off anyway we, give them an alternative. Okay. They buy into it or make it creating some value for people they were changing their behavior reducing. Accidents and costs, on something okay. They, also give them lollipops, to, eat why. Do they do that do, you think, it's. To shut them up because. They're. So. Some more examples, of how we can influence behavior, using a bit of science. To. Finish one. Of these biases. That we have that's evolved, and the, way that we make decisions is. Called status, quo bias. In. Terms of health sector, why. Do these companies, have very. High rates of organ donation, and. These companies have very low rates of organ donation, many. Similar in many ways the, reason is this. Has an opt-in, scheme, to donate your organs this. Has an opt-out, scheme. Why. Is this status, quo bias status. Quo bias is the, bias that we all have is I am, lazy. And I, don't want to think anything. That's too complicated, okay. So. In both situations, this works if you're, in the scheme. It. Takes an effort to come out of the scheme and you have to ask yourself, difficult, questions, about, why you would come out of this game in. Which most people don't want to do. If you're not, in the scheme it's. A difficult set of questions to think about why would I opt in okay. And it's difficult so it's difficult it's hard I'm, not gonna do it okay.
Anything That's difficult and hard I'm not going to do and. You won't it. Also. If, you, give people lots of decisions, to make, they make no decision. Okay. Example. If you're selling lots of products that are more or less the same if. You go into a supermarket where there are 30 different kinds of hair, shampoo. You. Will sell less, hair shampoo, than, if you go into a supermarket where there are ten choices, because. When there are lots of choices I just think it's. Too complicated I'll do nothing okay. The, same is true on things, like menus if, you give people too many options, not. Only is it very difficult to serve them the, more demand prepare them properly but, it just gets people to thing or it's just too complicated have something simple. Okay. Social, norms again, several other speakers have talked, about the, influence, of other people, we are so short animals, the, reason that we're a successful. Species is that, we work together collectively. Okay, group, decisions, are better than individual. Decisions, one. Of the worst things you can do to a human being is put them on their own most, of us go crazy okay so we work as, a collective, that's what we've evolved. To do. And. We call this social, norms, the, power of the, group to, influence, us. People. Who eat you go out to eat on your own figure out with one other person you'll. Need about 35, percent more if. You go out with a group of four people then 75. Percent more than an individual, and. Commercial. Sex and marketing, you know uses, a lot of most, people, prefer this product or if everybody prefers it and likes it it must be good I'll, go buy it - okay, you, go I walked around the town. Earlier today there, were some bars and clubs that were very forum, and others. That were not very full at all part. Of the therefore, some of them is because soon as you get a few people going there many, other people think oh it must be good I'll go. There too.
Okay. If. You're the government and I know tax, returns, is a big issue hearing, in Greece. If. You want people to put. Their tax return, in to the government, one, way of doing it is. Comparing. Them to other. People in the or area people. Like you this many people in your area return. Their tax return and, when you give, people. A specific, one in your town in your street, this. Many people return, their tax return more. People put their tax return in. Gets. A lot of extra revenue coming in for governments, this. Is a great example. And I've from. This what give, you an example from this hotel if. You're on a hotel or, any. Kind of establishment. When you're giving out towels to people, most. Hotels, have things like this and this is from this hotel and it says we're. Trying to save the environment please. Help us save the environment by, using your towels if you don't want if you want them to be changed, put them in the bath and we'll we'll change them okay that's what it says in my, room here I was, prepared to use my towels I did not put them in the bath and they were still changed, okay. But. This, is a famous experiment if. You. Put an environmental. Message like this one on. About. 35%. Of people will. Reuse. Their towels okay. If. You use a message that says most, people. Reuse. Their towels in, this hotel, it goes up to 44%, and. If. You say to people. Most. People in this, room. Recycle. Their towels, it goes up to 49%. Okay. This is the power I'm influenced. By what I think, other people are doing okay. Another. Key, bias is what, we call a loss. Aversion. Human. Beings asked, we will put about twice. As much effort, into. Keeping what we have then, getting, something new we. Really, don't like, losing what we've got our, stuff okay, we don't like that it's. Very distressing. So. People. Are very loss averse okay. So. Example. Would be I'm gonna play a game you know a betting game I'm, gonna toss a coin and. If. You. Lose at, this coin course you give me a hundred euros, okay. How. Much was your. Win, have to be for. You to take part in this bet the. Answer is probably at least 200, euros most, people would say okay, yes I don't like the idea of losing and giving me, 100, euros. One. Of the other things we know so the. Message of this is taught, you can often talk about what people might lose as, a, way of encouraging. Them to do something. Temporal. Discounting, this, is a term from economics. What, it means is people. We. Value. More, what, we get now then. Something, we might get in the future no, current. Gains are more important, than, potential, future, gains. Okay. So the idea is to turn. And. Give people short-term. Sure, wins. Example. Okay you can do this in the product, this. Is pret, it's a kind of sandwich, franchise in, the UK few other places and, what they've introduced, is what they call slim. Pret, half. The size half. The dough sandwich, but. It's not half the cost, okay. So. They, they. Market. A smaller, portion, why. Because. Some people want a smaller portion a lot of people on a diet or incident so this is I've, not lost anything yeah, they're, giving it's actually I have lost material even it's psychologically, I've lost nothing I'm buying, a product they're.
Smaller By. One that I want. Okay. This. Is another example of loss aversion people, we don't like paying, for stuff okay. We rather have it for free, so. Why. The casinos use, gambling, chips, because. It they don't look like money. We. Don't like losing money cash, money coins and knows. People. Paying with cash, typically. Overestimate. How much they've paid by, about nine percent so. If you want to save money you don't want to spend put. Your credit cards away take cash out with you because, you'll be much less likely to buy things with cash. Paying. With contactless. People. Underestimate. By about five percent so if you want to increase sales pay. By contactless. Prepaid. Gift cards, are also a way of, getting people not to, think oh I'm losing some money. Even, so you have a restaurant you have a menu or any. Other service. Based. Organization. And, you've got your price list if you, just take off the Euro sign, people. Think it's cheaper okay. Just. Because the Euro sign because it's not real money then it's just a number and. The, way you use numbers the 99 magic. Many of you sell, products and services will use this. 399. I seem to be a lot less than four okay. So using that pricing, is a good good thing to do ah, one. Of our colleagues works, to be, sorry. Porsche and. Daimler. Bentley. So. One. Of the other things when you're thinking about the price of your service, and the goods that you sell is, comparison. Says what. We do is when we are making a decision about whether something is good value or we. Compare it with something else more like an anchor point something, to compare it with so. A. Thirty. To a thousand, pound BMW. Compared, to a 20,000. Pound Ford, Mondeo. 33%. Think it's good value. Okay but, if we compare the same BMW. To, a Bentley. Almost. Hundred twenty thousand, forty. Seven percent think it's good value because, the comparison set, they shifted so, who you compare, yourself with, you. Know that's a key issue for you and your pricing. Okay. Expectation. Theory, and reciprocity, how am i doing for time how much much longer, five. Minutes okay. Okay, this. Is another one it's really useful expectation. And, reciprocity. A, thing. Called expectation. Theory. Okay. This, is the famous, experiment. By. David, one sink he. Prepared, three sets, of chocolate, brownies. Okay, exactly the, same recipe and divided. Them up into three batches, and then he. Asked people to come in and taste, the brownies, and say, which one was best but they're all the same all. You did was take the, first set and just, put them on a piece of paper. The. Second set were on a paper plate and, the. Third set were on a nice piece. Of china plate with a gold edge. So. He said come in different group try, them all which. Is that which is the most tasty chocolate, brownie, and what do you think happened. The. One with the plate okay, everybody, said yeah it's much nicer I like that so, setting. Up an expectation, with, people, has a big influence on them, and we can use this, that. ISO presentation. Is key language. Triggers. Can also create, expectation. If you say for instance. On. Today's menu we have locally. Sourced fresh crunchy, salad. Or. You just say salad. You. Sell more of the one as an expectation that, it's a great servant. Okay if you went into a restaurant like this and you walked in what. Would your expectation. Of the food and service be it would, be high wouldn't. It okay, and, if you didn't get it you'd. Be, quite surprised you'd also be expecting, to pay a fair amount of money as, well wouldn't you. This. Is another great example, this, is Joshua Bell, a, boy, playing four coins in a subway station we. Ask the people who are passing by how could you think that this this, boy is they. Say he's pretty good he's, probably a student, earning. Some money. It's. Joshua Bell he's one of the most fantastic, virtuoso. Finding in the world but. The context. Leads. You to an expectation, if. You, sell lemonade drinks. If. You sell a lemon drink in a, yellow glass. People. Would think it tastes more of lemons okay. Even. Though it doesn't. Yeah. I'm going to jump this one, reciprocity. If. You're running a service or a business, certainly. A service based organization. Reciprocity. Is really important, you need to think about reciprocity, is. Our. Learned. Behavior. That when. Somebody. Gives me something I feel obliged to give, them something back, okay.
That's Reciprocity fairness. Okay. So. How, can we use this. If. You're in a restaurant and you haven't, you just ordered your starter. And main course and before, that the, waiter comes up and says oh here's. A little complementary, dish on the, house these. Sets out on obligation. Oh that, one it took this just really nice I didn't in fire got something for free that's, great nice, place and. At the end of the meal they. Bring you some mints okay. This. Is partly setting, up an obligation, when you do these things you tend to get a bigger tip if, you're a waiter. But. It's also. What, happens at the beginning primacy. And what happens at the end of an interaction are, the two things we remember so. If you're trying to make a good impression with somebody the, very start, and the, very end of the contact, are the two important, things you need to focus on. Okay. Oh oh. This one one and then I'll kind of wrap up. Trust. And liking. Are also really, important. Triggers. For influencing. Behavior. So. Who is trusted, to tell the truth so. This is journalists. Politicians. Ministers. Business, leaders, trade. Unions simple servants alone okay. Professors. Most of what I say is true you can trust me okay, but. Trust is falling, everywhere. This. Is Greece, this, is trusting other members, of the community it's. Falling, and this is happening all over the world and. We need to recognize that people we, like we want trust I want to be able to trust people and, work with them I want to buy the trust companies, and, organizations. Okay. That gives me confidence. So. You. Have to pick the right face, an image. For. Your. Audience, no it's not what you think is important. Or trustworthy it's what they think is, trustworthy. You. Have to look for things in common, and promote those and, give. Compliments, and gifts to people and. Actively. Listen to them okay. So this, kind of feeds through into our kind of branding, kind of thinking, about trust, and liking, and. What what. Is a brand you, know the essence of a brand is around trust. Okay. If. I go if I'm abroad, in in any country, in the world where there's a McDonald's I can, walk into a McDonald's and, I know there, will be a clean, toilet, and, there'll, be Wi-Fi, and there'll, be food that's eatable. You. Know that's, a promise and if I walked into a, McDonald's, in a country and the toilet was bad I'd be shocked and. My faith in what dollars will be would be would be vented. So. A trust the brand is a promise to, deliver something in, a consistent, way, to people and if you do that. Creates and loyalty you've all come back because. They that what we don't like is uncertainty. Or. I know if I go there I'll get a decent meal or. They'll be a clean toilet I'm not gonna take a risk on this one I don't know. So. Powerful. Brands, you, know you've build, that promise, and. You deliver it every day you, also create, a story, around that, brand that, fits, into people's, lives. You. Know it's. Hugely important, I swallow. Yeah. Okay I will finish I'll finish on this one so. This. Is the last kind. Of, example. Of influencing. People, stop consciously. So. It's a we, need to give people good information we. Need to interact with them in a very kind of supportive. Way but. We can also influence. Them. With subtle, cues. And. This is a again a famous experiment, from a supermarket. About. Selling French. Wine or German, wine and. What. The the, supermarket, did on for, one week it, played in the background soft. German. Music I'm told there is such a thing as, soft German music. And. In the second week they, played soft.
Kind Of French classical. Kind of music okay, what. Happened to the sales of French and German wine in the, German Music Week German. Wine goes on in, the French Music Week French. Wine goes up when, you ask the shoppers, you. Know what music was playing they said I don't know I can't remember but. It influenced. Them. Okay. So I'm going to kind of wrap up now I know probably. Time's up so. There's. Tons, more stuff we'll. Cover it in the workshops if you're coming tomorrow. What. The thoughts I want to leave you with is. That human. Beings have been evolving, over in a hundreds of thousands, of years, and. For most of that time the, things that impacted, on our behavior, weren't, you, know a lot of kind of logical, debated. Kind. Of influences. There were lots of more visceral. Responses. To things okay, so, we carry with us that. Ancestry. Now. Of course civilized, world, we've, overlaid, that with a whole lot of an education. And social, kind. Of pressures, and learning. And culture this is all great okay, so our, job is to understand, all of those influences. And apply. Them all to, influencing. People's behaviors, be they citizens, or, be, they, potential. Customers, or or actual, customers, and the, more of that kind of science, that you can learn about the. More likely, is you'll be able to develop, marketing. And communication, strategies that, will actually give you a good return on investment, so I'd really encourage you to learn about. Behavior. And influence and. Apply. That in what you do if, you do not. Only will you make, more money and provide. A better service but, the customers, that use your service will, be, advocates, for you and they'll, bring in other, customers, as well thanks. So much.