This, episode, is sponsored by brilliant. They. Say the three most important, things about real estate are location, location. Location and. One, of the best locations in the future will be the sky. So. Today we return to the earth 2.0. Series to, continue our look at various ways we might reshape, our ward if we wish to we. Spent a fair amount of time in this series discussing, places, humanity, might occupy like. The oceans deserts tundra, or underground, but, for the most part we've, been looking at what they had to offer in, terms of resources or how we could make them more livable, because we were low on space often. We've noted that while you'd probably get a fair number of folks live email fundamentally. Such places don't have a strong motivation, to live there in and of themselves, to. Be sure some, folks would love to visit the ocean depths or go, live on the north pole or underground, but. By and large you, wouldn't have big queues of people fighting for the privilege when. We start looking at living up high though our topic, for today it's, a different story people. Like living on the upper floors of tall buildings or on hills for the view and looking. At human history we tend to glorify, our deities, by preening them up above on Olympian. Heights more, often than underground, looking. At that same history we have to acknowledge a pragmatism, to it as well, building. Up high protects, you from floods, and invasions, and gives, you a longer range of file and sites and to. Be seen as well palaces. Or temples built on a hill in or near a town are always, in sight and looming, and there, is a reason water, towers tend to be popular, targets, for graffiti people. Seem to like building, tall but, there is pragmatic, reasons, to do so too of course. The big problem, is how you get something out there without a coming back down again and, it behooves us to remember, that every, structure we make has, this issue many. Times we discuss new tech especially. Things like orbital, rings that just hang overhead, people. Worry about them crashing, down as well, they should but. Folks can sometimes, get stuck in an avalanche of potential, disasters, and safeguards. And forget, that we already have those issues with modern buildings which are very vulnerable to accident, or sabotage. Themselves, we, want enough safeguards, to make the cloud cities, we discussed today, safe or safer than modern, homes and. We'll discuss those too but, avoid the or -, what. If someone shot one down with a missile, without, force asking, what, would happen to your own town if someone, lobbed a missile at it - it's. Important, from the outset, though to note, that as we discuss the various ways for holding, these places up in the air one, of the best contingencies. Is to use multiple methods and, as, an example you, might make a big L ship or plane rely. On buoyancy. Or lift or, you might make something that did both and, which had its sewers and water was always ready to be dumped at a moment's notice to lighten the load this. Would make you very unpopular, with, whoever you wore but at the time but. It is presumably, a better alternative than dropping a city on them we. Also could incorporate pure, safety, features like parachutes, which, as we mentioned in orbital wings can, potentially, be made very light using, the same ultra, strong materials, so, many of these structures would need to be viable anyway, of course. Living among the clouds doesn't. Necessarily, mean you are floating you, might live on top of mountains, or a very, tall skyscraper. You, might be up on stilts, you might be hanging down from a tether in orbit and you, might simply be in orbit, many.
Of These can be mixed and matched to create hybrids, that are even safer, but, let's review each of these by themselves, forced, and, we may as well begin with our corn methods. Prior. To modern times if you want to be high up you, need to start by finding someplace high to build on the. Tallest, structure for most of human history was, the Great Pyramid, of Giza and it's not very tall or high above sea level needless. To say if you just want raw height above sea level you go find a place that's high and build, there will. Mostly bypass, the approach of just building a normal, but tall building, today a super. Scraper, as we, discuss those more in the space towel and arcology, episodes, and I'd rather save discussion, of them for, another day where we can give them their own whole, episode, but, building, on a mountaintop is a different. Approach and, also, gives us a good chance to look at some logistical, problems, that most of our other poachers will also have to face, conceptually. Building. A city on a mountaintop is easy enough UI, they'll cut the top off or hollow the peak out doing. The formal approach you'd, probably build a good retaining, wall around the top and flatten, it out or, do several layers like this to create a tiered city possibly, all the way down to the ground, you'd. Presumably, use a lot of rail lines to carry Freight and people up there but, you'd probably want to have some fairly impressive systems. For water and waste processing too because. Pumpy water to the top of a mountain is very, energy, expensive, of course. This all assumes you, all given your supplies from lower down but, you might actually be getting them from higher up one. Of the most obvious reasons, to build high is for easier space access, and as, the centuries, wore by it's, quite likely that most people won't live down on earth and not even necessarily on, other planets, you, could easily have a lot more real estate in orbit around Earth then down on earth and ultimately. Mountaintops, will, always caught a slight edge on places, lower down for, guinea into space but, we don't do that now because building facilities, up there is an expensive, pain and a logistical, nightmare one. Of the things that, makes them appealing as launch size is because, the Ale is thinner, up there which, is one reason you, might opt to hollow out a mountain, peak and live in there possibly. With large windows to let the light in and maintain, the view you. Can of course also dome, the place but. You don't necessarily have, to even. On the top of Mount Everest the Ale is breathable, if Bailey and most. Mountains, aren't nearly so high we. Also have options that will let you bypass, domes by using cybernetic, so genetic engineering, or even, outright supplementation. By building, huge air pumps, that just ran constantly. A dome. Seems preferable but, I could imagine a spaceport, where, everyone is already used to low pressure and breathing equipment having, buildings, that were kept at oval pressure and higher oxygen, rates and people. Strapped their breathing mask on when going out and the parks and gardens had genetically, treat plants, that the lower pressure medal and the, whole place had a constant, outward breeze as you pumped up warmer, higher oxygen, hail and just let it spill out this. Is, a fairly energy, heavy approach even on more modest mountaintops, where the pressure differential, isn't, as high and would, give you a constant, outward, wind but. You don't actually have to match north normal, pressure as, we don't require that and, might, use it as a minor supplement, diode, up just enough to provide a comfortable, outward, breeze and some warmth more. To the point some, of our designs for keeping places afloat would, involve using huge amounts of energy and AO, to keep the thing aloft in, which case this might be a natural, byproduct if.
You Have a city simply being held aloft by lift like, a helicopter you'd, have a higher pressure underneath, we. Think of living on top of whatever was floating but, you don't have to especially. The thing above is mostly transparent, like, a dome presumably, would be so. As mentioned oliel for most of all history, if we want to be up high we, either had to find a high place or build a big Tower as we, hit modern, times, long before the Wright brothers we found we could float up there by heating a uh so. It was a lower density and thus would float we. Also laid alone that some gases, like hydrogen and helium would, have this same effect what, we call a lifting, gas, now. We discuss, the physics of this more in the episode colonizing. Venus so, we'll skim that today but, as we mentioned throughout the series many, of our tricks for altering our planets might, come from those developed, for use on other wards, and vice-versa, sometimes. An idea we discuss here isn't, something we'd actually want to do on off Oh childhood. Home with nostalgia value, but, might on other wards. Loosely. Speaking lifting. Gases only gets you about a kilogram of weight per cubic, needle which, means you need something the size of a house to, lift even a couple people and indeed, you have to give over a lot of your mass to, whatever was holding that lifting gas in or insulating. It so it doesn't cool. Fortunately. Leakage, of gas or heat both relate to surface area while, buoyancy, is all about Valium so, we can benefit, from the square-cube law to, make thicker frames, that our story or better, insulated, leaked less and take, up a smaller percentage, of our mass budget, and. You will need to build big because, you really need a lot of valium to make something heavy float again. Your typical cubic, meter of a lifting gas is, only giving you about a kilogram of weight to walk with if, you wanted something like a ton or a thousand, kilograms per square meter of living area the, big balloon you are living on top or underneath of needs, to have a depth of kilometres. We. Shouldn't discount it just for that though because, there's nothing necessarily stopping. Us from having this balloon or lifting frame be transparent. Or have, yet spread out more the. Main objection, to a floating city passing, overhead would, be at blocking light, or folly, on them if, most of it's transparent, that force concern is removed and a, buoyant balloon doesn't really crash especially. If it's got membranes, inside partition. It so one compartment blowing, doesn't, instantly vent them all and such. Internal membranes, don't, need to be very thick and heavy since, they can leak between each other you just don't want them leaking very fast. You. Also don't actually need, soil, for plants to grow we, have both hydroponics. And aeroponics, but. Even if we did need soil a lot, of plants only need a few centimeters, of it especially if they had some web mashburn, eath to attach roots to picture. If you would a very, large disk or hexagonal, plate with, a large lawn, of thin soil or fake, soil for roots to attach to and get nutrient, baths the. Houses, and frame don't actually have to be very heavy if their bulk is made of things like graphene, packed with a low gel or some, other lightweight ultra. Strong substance, you. Could also make that frame out of something like a layered, fabric which. In an emergency, could blow out to create a parachute, a floating. City is cool but, a floating, house complete, with a yard is pretty neat too and, we suggest the hexagon, shape because, as we mentioned in our see studying episode at the start of the series when, we will floaties on water not AO you. Have cities that were made of lots of interlocking, plates, each, one it's our home that can connect or disconnect to. Migrate, elsewhere or, to rearrange the city's layout, easier.
Here Too since someone near the middle of such a big sheet of connected, floating habitats, can, disconnect, by floating up or down rather, than needing everyone, outside them to move, there's. Another thing though too as, we, said all of these would need a lot of depth to them and, cities don't have to be flat and indeed, have been moving, away from that we, already employ, a lot of sky ways to connect upper floors of buildings to, each other so, you don't have to descend all the way to the ground level to move around, whether. We're talking floating, cities or ones on mountains, you'd expect to see a lot more emphasis on three, dimensions, in layout you. Might build mini concentric, tiered rings around a mountain you might build homes more like balconies, around the edge of a spherical balloon or lifting, frame if. You're assembling a bunch of individual, floating, structures, into, a potentially, ever-shifting cloud, city there's, no particular reason why they all need to be the same height nor. Do they have to be interlocked, requiring. Either square or hexagonal, layouts. They. Might just be tethered, together tether. Travel, might be fairly normal, to since. You need a way to reach the ground you. Might want to tether it to the ground to avoid being blown around and, you, obviously aren't keeping a cow up there of course. Portion or vehicles, might be planes or helicopters not. Calls and we, do have planes and very large ones at that we. Run these aren't fuel and fuel, is heavy but we can keep a plane aloft indefinitely by. Midday, over fueling and multiple. Engines so, that one or two can be shut down for maintenance if need, be key. Thing bail fuel, is heavy but, only chemical, fuel is heavy and these, oh not rockets the, propellant, pushing the thing can, be ill you just, grabbed from in front of you it's, not really a huge amount of power either especially, if you don't have to carry heavy fuel, needless. To say if you've got compact, fusion, not only do you need very little fuel by weight but since that fuel is in very old light stuff like hydrogen deuterium tritium. Or helium-3, it, also would, be a lifting, gas indeed. Hydrogen, is quite, a good chemical, fuel too so. A civilization. That's energy, rich from fusion but, can only make big and heavy plants, on the ground could, mass produce hydrogen. By electrolyzing, in water to use a mixture, of fuel and lifting, gas for such structures, you, can mix powered, flight and buoyant, flight we, just don't very often unless you count the engines, on blimps, how. Much energy it takes to keep something aloft through, lift is rather variable, to its speed and height but. A Boeing 747, bones, about a gown a second, while cruising, for instance while, smaller helicopters. Might use less than a gallon of minutes and only, about an order of magnitude more fuel, than a coal however. This, is perfect, for something like radioisotope. Thermoelectric. Power. Constantly. And if you just float around at low speeds all the time that's, pretty much what you want many. Things that wouldn't work well nowadays because, of the sheer cost aren't. Necessarily, bottlenecks, in the future same as aluminum used to be more expensive than gold but, is now treated as nearly disposable.
An Energy. Rich society, can get away with things we can do now on paper but can't afford to do a floating. House with a big lawn its, own power plant and, water recycling, facility, might, just be viewed as only somewhat, luxurious, a century, or two from now rather. Than something only an eccentric billionaire could, contemplate of course. On board power or power beamed in from orbital, satellites, aren't the only way to get power there and there, are other ways to lift stuff up if you have access, to a lot of energy, a tether. Running down to the surface to let you move back and forth could also be used to kill you electricity, and something. Running on solar power and buoyancy might, anchor, at night times or cloudy days by, dropping a big story power line down to the ground indeed. It might tend to have multiple power lines constantly, shooting down to grapple, onto power junctions, and just, pull itself around, way like, a big spider. Such, a line might be thinner, than your arm too even, for very large floating, cities so. From a distance they'd appear invisible except, for navigation, hazard lights like tall towers, have and in, the future such things might tend to be in wavelengths, outside the normal visual range to, avoid the visual, clutter and light pollution we. Talked about that in colonizing, Venus two big. Spider cities that mulch around the sky by shooting, tethers or using, thin stilts, you. Could potentially make very, big thin stilts, to materials. Like graphene rely, on tensile. Strength, great, for hanging things far more pooling with but. Most buildings, will lie on compressive. Strength and we, can turn to act to support systems, like, those we discussed in space, towers they. Are energy, hogs unless, you've got warm temperature, superconductors. That you can magnetically, shield but, if you have that or a huge, cheap energy supply you. Really could sit cities Massey in the gigatonnes on top, of some very thin support, pylons, a single.
Pylon Even, if it could hold the weight is, kind, of dangerous so. You must construct, additional pylons, for safely. And. These, could be used as stilts, for walking, your city to plenty. Of other options as well we, can beam power up to one or beam, it down from orbit and bounce it back up and possibly. Build the city at the top of a big transparent. Dish where, any energy, loss to atmospheric, absorption or, conversion. Is heating the air under, the dish up and providing. Lift or even thrust you, can make a spaceship, or airplane, that gets its energy beamed, in and this, approach relying. On size and heat, is less, vulnerable to a break in that beam and would, just drift down if power, was cut like. A hot air balloon and parachute, mixture, handy. Too since, if that dish is very strong anything. It lands on is basically, getting a lid put over it not crushed, we've, also got the ionic, wind approach like, mi t--'s new plane that has no moving parts that can break and is virtually silent and could, walk very well, when secured up in size for, this sort of slow drifting. Craft or building, another. Way to create lift is by induced, air flow like the commando effect using. Jet surveil on a surface, to pour Moyo around, a surface or wing some. Helicopters, use this to counteract, a voto talk instead, of a tail vote or to avoid the danger of a spinning blade at ground crew level, a floating. Body could create its own lift this way moving, air of out itself, instead, of moving through the air we. Can hang things to either, by very long tether of neo geosynchronous, orbits, and abridge space elevator basically, or the less cumbersome, and safe approach of the chandelier, city we discussed, in colonizing. Neptune where. You hang off an orbital, ring such. Things can be built stationary. Or to, move over, a track there. Is a question of why you'd want to move regularly. But at slow speed and as, we noted in seasteading, there, are a lot of cases where you might a floating. Stadium, or carnival or museum, money up and down a coastline, was an example they are and would, walk just fine he'll - we. Also mentioned, solar-powered, ones need to tether to the ground at night and, another, approach on motion, might, be ones that bobbed up and down over the course of a day but. It is worth remembering that physical, location, is likely, to be much less relevant, for things like walk and school in the future even, assuming, we don't eventually get all have a calls that sci-fi has been promising, us for around a century now or personal. Helicopters, or quad copters, in an energy-rich civilization. Speaking.
Of Bobbing, I could, imagine buoyant, reefs for, growing plants, on that, floated around growing, and slowly. Descended, to the ground when they got too heavy with plants, and crops which. You then harvested, and let drift back up sort. Of like a big cloud sheep you shield I doubt. That would be practical but it still sounds cool and when, dealing with civilizations. Numbering, in the billions and very prosperous, you, can support a lot of impractical. Things that, all needs simply for tourism and. Floating. Garden parks tripping around or, floating, restaurants, might, be a regular, feature of bigger cities or something, most nations had several, of a city. Is not synonymous with some, giant megalopolis. Like New York or Tokyo either. Definitions. Vary but, here in Ohio and most the Midwestern, u.s. a city, is defined, as any incorporated. Miss county with more than 5,000. People a village. One of less than 5,000. People and a, town simply, anything not incorporated. My, specific township, of Geneva actually, includes, the village of Geneva, and the lake where I live, the, city of Geneva and the unincorporated, spaces. Between, keep. That in mind a place, like New York City with millions, of people could, easily have several, cloud cities and villages that, will pop your for tourism combos. Or luxurious. Private residences, same. As they might have many coastal, artificial, islands, or subterranean, cities, and might, have large structures, drifting, in and out floaties, on sea or AR while. We're going to save a more extensive discussion of, just how far you can go with hanging things from space or suspending. Them by active, support for another day there. Is one last structure, I want to mention today that is kind of neat that relates to space launches, we. Discussed the notion of a skyhook or rotavator, back, in the Upward Bound series, and, its uses can be fairly similar to what we'd use for hanging towers, from orbit one, version, is a long tether whose low end hangs down into, the atmosphere and, which, can orbit fall slower than normal because of this the, top is in a fall higher and slower orbits and the net speed gets averaged, out those. Are handy, because they allow hypersonic. Planes to fly up and attach, to them and crawl, up into space and, they, can regenerate, the momentum, they lost to that plane and the thin ale by, electro dynamic tethering, you. Can make a floating city this way though, the tether needs to be very long if you want it moving slow and this, is one of the ways we might use magnetics. For floating things but. The more popular, portion is the vote a veto skyhook, that spins, around so. That it's tip descends, and is moving even slower while, its other tip is moving, faster, than normal at the top like, a big slingshot for spacecraft, this. Along, with the notion of floating cities bobbing, up and down got, us thinking about another approach to moving up and down which, we decide to call a sky, wheel for. Conceptual, purposes, imagine. A very big carousel, we all possibly. With the bottom floating just over the ground, possibly, with the whole thing floating fall up in the sky very. Stripped down Holland. And large, versions, might, be handy for reaching space but. A more modest form might, simply connect the ground to a floating city and be, a fun way to reach them and the, various carousel, cults might, be parks, or businesses, or homes or, on larger, ones entire. Neighborhoods, they. Needn't be circular, they could be elliptical, for instance and they, needn't be exposed to open air either and one, could imagine big, forms of these which Ward around fill a metropolis, cloud city neighborhoods, all the way down to its subterranean, ones, not. Very practical compared, to an elevator or tram line but, as with a lot of things we discuss in this series. Practicality. Is not, always what matters most very. Prosperous, and high-tech, societies, might, tend to make such things for the same reason, they have parks, and gardens they're. All practical, uses though even if we don't need them in this case any more than a beach resort needs industrial. Uses we. Mentioned, space ports, but airports, can be an option to a lot, of fuel is expended, climbing, up to speed and altitude and, a, floating airport can help with that and while, floating aircraft, kirio like the shield Helicarrier, has a lot of downsides, the, greater speed of an airborne one compared, to a naval ship seriously. Housed with power projection which. Is one of the major purposes of a kirio group, we've. Also often, talked about using orbiting, meals and shades to help cool or warmer planets and for. The most part one, floating high in the sky can, achieve the same effect somewhat. Diminished but, also easier, to build and maintain. But you might also use such, things especially, those using ionic, propulsion to. Help with something like ozone, farming, ozone. Layers are important. And can, be artificially generated.
You. Might also use them for sucking up lighter than air pollutants or greenhouse, gases, or, distributing, fertilizer, or even, moisture one. Could imagine genuine. Cloud cities that, helped with weather control, it's. Hard to imagine how many these things will have in the future or what specific, methods will be employed, to keep them aloft there's, just too many variables and. We, might get better with magnetic levitation, for instance who, invents, something like the classic, artificial. Or anti-gravity, fields. Science fiction loves so much, but, I am confident, one day and maybe, not to fall off we. Will at least have some civilizations. In the skies and, what. A great view they'd have. So. We were discussing how to keep enormous, objects, aloft today by, buoyancy, or by lift or even, by active, support, or orbital, mechanics, these. Are all examples of classical. Mechanics and when, it comes to practical knowledge there, isn't much more practical, than, classical, mechanics, and few. Topics that truly change a way of looking at the ward more than mastering, this topic, to. Master it though it takes more than just hearing the ideas you, have to get in and practice it and if, you're looking for a great way to do that with clear explanations. Visualizations. And, interactive. Quizzes try. Out the classical, mechanics courses on brilliant, we. Often discuss the future of education, of how, important. That interactive. Aspect, is especially. For the maths and Sciences, and brilliant. Incorporates, that into every, course they make they, also include, daily problems. Which, are an excellent way to get introduced, a fun new topics, which you can take expanded, courses on if one ceases your interest, if. You'd like to learn more about that topic and, others, and do, so at your own pace go. To a brilliant org, slash Isaac, author and sign, up for free and also. The force 200 people that go to that link, we'll get 20%, off the annual, premium, subscription. Next. Week we'll be returning to the alien civilization, series to look at the popular concept of aliens, visit us regularly, and covertly. In secret. Aliens, and we'll, take a look at allowed conspiracy. Angles and see, what sort of motives, aliens, might have for such things the. Week after that we'll stop mulch off by, taking a look at how a person, might make their way around a colonized, galaxy, in, hitchhiking. The galaxy, for. Lords when those and other episodes command make, sure to subscribe the channel and hit, the notifications. Bell and, if you enjoyed this episode hit, the like button and share it with us until next, time thanks, for watching and have a great week.